method of production - is (according to the theory of Karl Marx) is characteristic of a particular historical period, the unity of the relations of production and productive forces, which provide material benefits society.
productive forces - a combination of labor and tools.In the labor force are taken into account the historical context of the relevant knowledge, skills and experience, and tools vary in their complexity and mehanizirovannosti.Productive forces are directly dependent on natural habitats particular social formation.
Industrial Relations - a historically developed ways of organizing production, which includes the right of ownership, especially the distribution of wealth and other legal aspects of the relationship.
Karl Marx, following stages of social evolution, proposed by Hegel and Saint-Simon, identified five major historical modes of production:
- slave (antique);
primitive communal mode of production
lasted from the beginning of the Stone Age and up to the moment of occurrence of class society (IX century BC).Initially based on appropriating economy, iepeople only use what nature gave.With the development of the relations of production and productive forces, with the emergence of certain skills and tools, primitive method also acquired the mining sector.
- economic equality, ie equal treatment of all members of society to the means of production and the distribution of wealth;
- the absence of private property;
- the absence of exploitation.
This equally, the collective nature of the relationship was based on a very low level of development of productive forces.Produced enough material goods mainly on the maintenance of life.At this stage, excess of the product did not exist.Only the subsequent development of the productive forces ensured the emergence of surplus product, which resulted in new ways of distribution and allocation of the corresponding classes of society, the emergence of trade between neighboring tribes, the emergence of private property and the initial forms of exploitation.
Antique production method
began in the IX century BCin Greece and continued until the II - IV centuries ADAt this stage of private ownership existed alongside community, the city emerged with the attributes of statehood.Ownership of the work was based on land ownership.The city existed more as a military-defensive formation, rather than manufacturing.Waging war has been a great public work and way to obtain wealth.A distinctive feature of the production relations of this period was the presence of slaves and slave labor - as a "consistent and necessary result" of existing society.
feudal mode of production
This is the period from the end of IV - beginning of V centuries, which was formed after the slave system (in the Mediterranean countries, the Middle East and North Africa), or immediately after the primitive (in the Slavic territories).
This method of production is based on the formation of the feudal class and peasants, based on land ownership.The feudal lords were landowners and peasants fell into private ownership, as they were in the land of their small private production.For the right to use the land to the peasants paid off their work with landowners, natural products, or money.
In the early Middle Ages the peasants have relative independence and autonomy, which has led to significant growth of the productive forces, the development of crafts and progress in agriculture.Developing cities and formed a new social class - the free citizens, and later the bourgeoisie.
At the beginning of the XV century in most Western European countries the peasants received personal exemption from feudal dependence.Gradually arose the beginnings of capitalist society, which finally strengthened by the bourgeois revolutions in the late XVIII century.
capitalist mode of production
basis of this mode of production - the relationship between wage labor and capital.Society, respectively, divided into two classes: the capitalists - the owners of the means of production and financial capital, and the proletarians, who sell their labor power to the capitalists.This gives rise to the concept of surplus value - profits from this production that the capitalists leave themselves.Surplus value is actually the driving force of capitalist society.
Between capitalist mode of production the productive forces were previously unprecedented development.The volume of production, the level of development tools have grown significantly.However, the main benefit from the growth of social production battered mostly capitalists.
At a certain stage this system should develop the productive forces private capitalist relations of production, which, according to Marx, will inevitably lead to the formation of the next stages of development of society - socialism and communism.
communist mode of production
becomes of public property, and labor - public.In this class character remains, as the property is divided by the state and co-operative.Also unresolved problem of separation between mental and physical labor, distribution of wealth, respectively, embedded work.The main psychological question of this society: how to make the work of the voluntary vital need of every person.So while Marx's theory about the formation of a communist society is a utopia.At the present time we are seeing the beginnings of a socialist society in a number of capitalist countries.But for more, as history has shown, it is to speak prematurely.