Types of temperament: a brief characteristic features

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man was the object of study since time immemorial.It is noteworthy that the first attempt to create a personality typology was the selection of the four main types of temperament.And his hand is still attached to it are ancient scientists and philosophers such as Galen and Hippocrates.What are the types of temperament, a brief description of them, and all you need to know about a person, will be discussed hereinafter.

terminology, definitions

Initially, it is necessary to find out what the actual question.It is important to clarify that it is impossible to confuse terms such as "character", "type of temperament."They have a completely different meaning.Temperament can not characterize richness of personality (beliefs, attitudes, outlook), it is a certain dynamic party.

So, what is the temperament?It is a combination of the features of a person, that characterize the emotional side of it, ie,behavior and mental activity.If we approach the issue from a physiological point of view, it is caused by a special type of temperament higher nervous activity (GNI).

Before considering the different types of temperament, it should be noted that this concept is not included:

  1. character.
  2. Abilities.

Temperament is the basis of human nature, it has a different impact on the modes of communication and behavior of the individual.

What exactly depends on temperament

should also be noted that there are a number of indicators that are directly dependent on a specific type of temperament.Consider them.

  • intensity of mental processes (emotional, volitional characteristics).
  • rate of occurrence of different mental processes (rate of perception, thinking, while concentrating on one activity).
  • control activities, its evaluation.
  • lines of action (extrovert, introvert).
  • disciplinary and behavioral effects.

types of temperament: a brief description of

In modern science, there are four basic types of temperaments: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic.And they all differ from each other.Types of temperament can be described briefly in a special human response to accident arose in his path obstacle.

Thus, choleric this barrier very quickly and without inhibition sweep out of the way.Sanguine think how it is best to get around the obstacle.Phlegmatic various barriers often do not notice.A melancholic obstacles to a stop and can not move on.

little about choleric

now want to separately consider all of the above types.After all, they are significantly different from each other.The first will examine the choleric temperament.

Initially, it should be noted that the word derives from the Greek word "lobby", which means "bile red-yellow."These people do not hold back emotions, lively, energetic, impetuous.

Positive aspects choleric nature

choleric temperament has both its positive and negative qualities.Consider for the beginning pros.

  • Choleric straightforward, decisive.They always know what to do in a certain situation.
  • These people are fast, flexible, work in their hands just boils.
  • a new business representatives of this type of temperament are taken without problems and fear.Everything is done quickly, easily overcome various obstacles.
  • Choleric like to argue, to prove his innocence.
  • expressive mimicry of such people.They are, as the saying goes, everything is written on his face.It
  • such people live, emotional.They can complement its various movements of hands and body.
  • feelings choleric appear very quickly, they are always vivid and emotionally colored.
  • Choleric almost never take offense, offense is not memorized.
  • sleep and wake up a man quickly.Sleeps soundly.

Disadvantages choleric temperament

consider further the various types of temperament.Brief description of the negative aspects choleric includes the following features:

  • Speed ​​choleric often flows in haste.
  • Movement sharp, jerky, unbalanced and often intemperate.
  • choleric is clearly not enough patience.
  • straightness can sometimes play a negative role.In statements choleric people often take offense.
  • Persons with this type of temperament often provoke various kinds of conflicts.
  • Choleric used to work in spurts.The sharp rise in activity gives way to recession.And so the circle.
  • These are people who are not afraid to take risks.That is why they are often in inconvenient situations.
  • Choleric superficial.They do not like to delve into the essence of the problem.
  • Prone to mood swings.
  • Such people do not tolerate mistakes of others.

recommendation to people with choleric type of character must learn to restrain myself.To this end, before making a decision or a desire to speak it is necessary to try to count to ten.This will help to calm down and in certain situations to make things right.

Who are phlegmatic?

What is especially interesting and phlegmatic temperament?So, initially it should be noted that the word comes from the Greek for "phlegm", ie"slime".These people are reliable, diligent, peaceful, thoughtful and taciturn.

esteem, positive aspects phlegmatic

What good temperament phlegmatic?

  • The first is calm, sensible and balanced people.Do they have any exposure to even conflict and dispute.
  • These people are consistent in business.They all started necessarily brought to its logical conclusion.It
  • they measured, quiet.No unnecessary movements and pronounced facial expressions.Such people are a little talk.
  • The paper adhere to the systematic, do not like to deviate from the order.
  • constantly, not only in relationships, but also in the interest.It is most often Monogamous.Feelings of deep, but carefully hidden from the eyes of others.
  • This robust, forgiving people, which is very hard to ruffle.

negative side phlegmatic

continue to consider the types of temperament.Brief description of the negative aspects, ie,phlegmatic shortcomings as follows:

  • They react poorly to external stimuli, so rather slowly take new circumstances.
  • Such people maloemotsionalny.Sometimes it is impossible to understand what is going on in their hearts.
  • very slowly incorporated into a new job, and switch from one case to another.
  • pretty hard to adapt to the new situation.Not easy to converge with new people.
  • is worth noting that in the life of the phlegmatic a lot of patterns and stereotypes, which they strictly follow.

phlegmatic Tips: need to develop these missing qualities of activity and mobility.

Sanguine - who is he?

What is interesting sanguine temperament?It is also important to consider the origin of the term.Translated from the Latin "Sangvis" means "blood."These people are mostly aged, sociable, balanced and practical.The positive side of sanguine:

  • mood they mostly good.But it can vary dramatically.
  • All the feelings of the people there very quickly.However, there are different depth.
  • troubles, setbacks experienced no problems, quite easily.
  • endurance and performance are at the highest level.
  • No problem, make new acquaintances.In dealing with new people do not experience discomfort, inconvenience, fear.
  • Such people even in the most difficult situations to restrain their emotions.They have a great sense of self-control.
  • These loud, hurried, with distinct.Facial expressions and gestures are bright expressed.
  • are good organizers.The activity of persistent, all the cases brought to its logical conclusion.

disadvantages of this type of temperament

Considering the particular types of temperament, it should be noted that the sanguine also has its negative side:

  • tend not to bring the case to the end.However, this is only true if the interest in activity is lost.
  • Sanguine not accept monotonous work.
  • Such people often overestimate themselves and their capabilities.
  • These are people that are rapidly changing hobbies.This applies both to the interests and personal life.
  • The decisions of such persons may be hasty, ill-advised.
  • sanguine mood is unstable and prone to change.

Council such people: to achieve good results, they should not niggle.It is also desirable to develop perseverance and accuracy.

Who are melancholic?

Finally, it's time to consider the latter type of temperament.Melancholy - what is it?Thus, the term is derived from the Greek "melayn lobby", which means "black bile".These people are mostly uncommunicative, withdrawn, anxious and often sullen.Consider their dignity:

  • Melancholic sensitive.However, this may also apply to the disadvantage of the type of temperament.
  • These people are put forward to his excessive demands, which forces them to strive for the better.
  • They are tactful, discreet.
  • Melancholic great feelings of other people, their mood.
  • Emotions such people strong, deep, bright, permanent.
  • work calmly and efficiently.However, only in a familiar environment.

Disadvantages melancholic

So, find out the negative aspects of this type of temperament.

  • Again at the forefront hypersensitivity, emotionality.
  • These people are very hard to bear grudges, if upset, then for a long time.
  • Melancholic in most cases, shy, shy, not inclined to communicate identity.
  • These are people who rarely laugh.They are mostly pessimistic.
  • do not like anything new for a long time to adapt to a new team.Changes for them - it's something awful hard.
  • in the work they need to pause, as they are prone to rapid fatigue.It
  • their quiet weak.Facial expressions and gestures are virtually absent.
  • This tearful, whiny people.
  • In most cases, melancholic fearful, anxious and closed.
  • In difficult moments, such people tend to get lost, they often throw up their hands in front of obstacles, not trying to avoid them, or out of the way.

Recommendations for the melancholic: it is necessary for normal life to overcome shyness.To do this, try as often as possible to take part in various activities.You also need to start dating, chat more.Also, these people are very important to continuously improve self-esteem.

main components

should definitely consider the psychological types of temperament, that is,those components of points on the basis of which occurs this division.So, these are the following nuances:

  1. Sensitive.This is the amount of external forces, which is necessary to the manifestation of the reaction.
  2. reactivity.This is the level exhibited by the reaction.
  3. activity.This is the same energy.
  4. rigidity and ductility.It is a certain degree of adaptability to various external stimuli.
  5. The rate of reaction.This special course of the reactions and various mental processes (speech rate, etc.).
  6. Introversion and extroversion.
  7. emotional excitability.

It is these properties and have made it possible to identify four main types of temperament that may be inherent in man.

few words about children

worth noting that there is absolutely no sense to separately consider the types of temperament children.Indeed, they are the same as described above.However, it is necessary to clarify that as they mature temperament may vary.As a child, one can prevail, in adulthood - a completely different type.Drastic changes as often happens.So children temperament types are the same as in adults.Kids also are choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic.However, it is important here is the type of education.Thus, children of different temperaments need to look for a completely different approach.After all, they have significantly different level of understanding and perception.

The purity types

should definitely clarify that there are few people who have a clear inherent temperament.Basically this tandem two different types.One of them will lead, i.e.more thoroughly.The other - optional.Scientists also say that each person contains the features of all four types of temperament.But their concentration is quite different.

know your type

Determining the type of temperament takes place on the basis of different tests and procedures.I must say that today there are a lot of them.So, this questionnaire, which has a certain number of very simple questions.Their goal - to understand how a person reacts to a particular situation.

When passing these tests is recommended to give quick and clear answers.No need to worry about what to say or what to choose.It is necessary to act, depending on the emotion that occur first.We must remember that in such questionnaires are no right or wrong questions.There can not be answered is good or bad.

For what, in fact, need to know your temperament?Everything is simple: in order to understand their strengths and weaknesses for future work on his "I".It is also the necessary knowledge in the case if you have to communicate with different people.So, we must remember that we can not demand from the melancholic speed assignments and by choleric - calm.

tests

As already mentioned above, the definition of the type of temperament comes through various questionnaires.

  • Test Rusalova.It allows you to define the dynamic properties of the individual.There 150 questions.Answer must quickly without thinking.
  • Test Belova.In this case, people will be presented alternately 4 cards.There will be written 20 properties that may be characteristic of a particular individual.In each of them, a person must be noted that it is typical.
  • Yet it is the most popular test of Eysenck.A person is given 100 different issues that reflect a certain manner of behavior or reaction to a particular situation.If the statement, according to the subject's true, it puts a plus, but if wrong - minus.
  • By Smirnova questionnaire can determine the quality of the polar nature.For example, anxiety and balance, introversion and extraversion, etc.