universe is huge.Scientists try to cover it in their studies, often feel no incomparable human loneliness that pervades some novels Ephraim.Too little chance of detecting life, like ours, in the available space of the cosmos.
a long time among the contenders for the population of organic life was listed Venus, the planet of the solar system, shrouded in legend, no less than the fog.
close and similar
Venus by the degree of distance from the sun should be just behind the Mercury and is our closest neighbor.On Earth it can be seen without the aid of the telescope in the wee hours of the evening and the brightest in the sky after the Sun and Moon is just Venus.Color planet to mere observer always white.
literature can be found in its designation as the Earth's twin.There are a number of explanations: the description of the planet Venus in many ways replicates data about our home.First of all it refers to the diameter (about 12 100 km), is almost identical with the corresponding characteristic of the Blue Planet (a difference of about 5%).The mass of the object, named in honor of the goddess of love, is also a little different from the Earth.The role played in the partial identification and proximity.
open atmosphere reinforced the view of the similarity of the two celestial bodies.Information about the planet Venus, confirming the presence of a special air bag has been derived MVLomonosov in 1761.Ingenious scientists have observed the passage of a planet across the Sun and noticed a special radiance.This phenomenon was explained by refraction of light rays in the atmosphere.However, subsequent discoveries have discovered a huge gulf between the seemingly similar conditions on the two planets.
Such evidence of similarity, as the size of the planet Venus and the atmosphere that it has been supplemented with data on the composition of air, actually perecherknuvshy dream about the existence of life on the Morning Star.In the process space research were detected carbon dioxide and nitrogen.Their share in the air as the shell is distributed respectively 96 and 3%.
density of the atmosphere - a factor that makes Venus so easily visible from the Earth at the same time available for research.Layers of clouds enveloping the planet, well reflect light, but impermeable to scientists wishing to establish that they hide.For more information about the planet Venus became available only after the beginning of space exploration.
composition of the cloud cover to the end is not clear.Presumably, a major role is played by a pair of sulfuric acid.The concentration of gas and the density of the atmosphere, about a hundred times the earth creates on the surface of the greenhouse effect.
hot weather on the planet Venus is very similar to the fantastic descriptions of conditions in the underworld.Due to the peculiar atmosphere of the surface never cools down even with the part, which is turned away from the sun.And this despite the fact that the rotation around the axis of the Morning Star does more than 243 Earth days!The temperature on Venus is + 470ºC.
absence of the change of seasons is due to the slope of the axis of the planet, according to various sources not exceeding 40 or 10º.Moreover, here, the thermometer provides the same results for the equatorial zone, and for the region of the poles.
Such conditions leave no chance of water.According to the researchers, once we were oceans on Venus, but the temperature rise has made their existence possible.Ironically, the greenhouse effect has become possible thanks to the evaporation of large amounts of water.The steam passes sunlight, but trapping heat near the surface, thereby increasing the temperature.
heat and contributed to shaping the landscape.Before the advent of radar techniques in the arsenal of scientific astronomy was hidden nature of the surface, which has the planet Venus.Photos and images taken by spacecraft have helped create a fairly detailed map of the terrain.
Heat thinned crust of the planet, so there is a large number of volcanoes, both active and extinct.They give Venus the hilly appearance, which is visible in the radar images.Flows of basaltic lava formed the vast plains, against which well looked elevation stretched for a few tens of square kilometers.This so-called continents dimensions comparable with Australia, and the nature of the terrain resembling mountains of Tibet.Their surface is covered with cracks and craters, unlike the landscape of the plains, almost completely smooth.
crater left by meteorites are much smaller than, for example, on the Moon.Scientists refer to two possible reasons for this: a dense atmosphere, which plays the role of a screen, and the active processes, the erased traces of falling of space bodies.In the first case detected craters, likely came at a time when the atmosphere was more depleted.
Description of the planet Venus will be incomplete if only to pay attention to the radar data.They give an idea of the nature of the terrain, but the man in the street is difficult to understand on the basis of what he would see, once here.Research spacecraft lands on the Morning Star, help answer the question about the color of the planet Venus will be for an observer on its surface.As befits a hellish landscape here is dominated by shades of orange and gray.The landscape is really reminiscent of the desert, barren and douse the heat.This is Venus.The color of the planet, which is characteristic for the soil, and dominates the sky.The reason for such an unusual color - the absorption of short-wavelength light, typical for a dense atmosphere.
data about Venus going machines with great difficulty.Stay on the planet is complicated by strong winds, reaching a peak speed at an altitude of 50 km above the surface.Near the earth element in substantially calms, but even the slightest movement of air - a weighty obstacle in the dense atmosphere, which has the planet Venus.Photography, giving an idea of the surface made ships capable of only a few hours to confront a hostile onslaught.But enough of them, so that after each expedition, scientists have discovered for myself something new.
Hurricane wind is not the only feature that is famous for the weather on the planet Venus.There are raging storm at a rate higher than the same parameter for the Earth twice.During the period of increasing activity of the specific cause lightning airglow.
«eccentricities» Morning Star
Venusian winds - the reason why the clouds move around the planet faster than she did about the axis.As noted, the last option is 243 days.The atmosphere is sweeping around the planet in four days.At the Venusian oddities do not end there.
duration of the year is slightly less than the length of the day: 225 Earth days.At the same time the sun rises on the planet is not in the east and the west.Such an unconventional direction of rotation is characteristic only of Uranus.It was exceeding the speed of the earth's rotation around the sun made it possible to observe Venus twice during the day: in the morning and evening.
orbit of the planet - almost a perfect circle, the same can be said of its form.Land with little flattened poles, at the Morning Star is no such feature.
What color is the planet Venus?Part of this topic has already been disclosed, but it is not so simple.This feature can also be attributed to a number of features that has Venus.Color planet when seen from space is different from the dusty orange inherent surface.Again, the thing is the atmosphere: a veil of clouds does not pass below the beams of blue and green colors of the spectrum and at the same time the planet for an outside observer to dirty white.For earthlings, rising above the horizon, the Morning Star has a cold brilliance, not reddish glow.
Numerous spacecraft mission led to conclusions not only about the color of the surface, but a more detailed study that is under it.The structure of a planet similar to Earth.Morning Star is the bark (thickness approximately 16 km) beneath the mantle and core - core.The size of Venus is close to Earth, but the ratio of the inner shells of her different.The thickness of the mantle layer - more than three thousand kilometers, the basis of it - it's different silicon compounds.The mantle surrounds the relatively small core, liquid and predominantly iron.Significantly inferior to Earth "heart", it makes a significant contribution to the mass of Venus: it is about a quarter.
Features planet's core deprived of its own magnetic field.As a result, Venus is exposed to the solar wind and is not protected by the so-called hot flow anomalies, explosions colossal magnitude, occurring often intimidating and can, by hypothesis the researchers, absorb and Morning Star.
All the characteristics possessed by Venus: the color of the planet, the greenhouse effect, the movement of magma, and so on - are studied including with the aim to apply the data to our planet.It is believed that the structure of the surface of the second planet from the Sun can give an idea about how to look young Earth about 4 billion years ago.
data about atmospheric gases tell researchers about the time when Venus was forming.They are also used in the construction of theories about the development of the Blue Planet.A number of scientists
sizzling heat and lack of water on Venus seem possible future Earth.
artificial cultivation of life
With forecasts that promise the death of the world, associated projects and the other planets move in organic life.One of the candidates - Venus.The ambitious plan is to spread in the atmosphere and on the surface of the blue-green algae, which are central to the theory of the origin of life on our planet.Delivered microorganisms in theory able to significantly reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide and lead to a reduction in pressure on the planet, and then make it possible to further colonization of the planet.The only obstacle is insurmountable for the implementation of planned - no water needed for the prosperity of algae.
Certain hopes pinned on this issue, and for some types of mold, but so far all the developments remain on the level of theory, because sooner or later face considerable difficulties.
Venus - the planet of the solar system is truly mysterious.Manufactured study answered a lot of questions associated with it, and at the same time created new, something even more complex.Morning Star - one of the few cosmic bodies, wearing a woman's name, and, like a beautiful girl, she attracts the looks, occupies the thoughts of scientists, but because it is likely that researchers still tell us a lot about our neighbor.