Troubles in Russia

Troubles in Russia - a period of 1598-1613 years, when the state is in political and socio-economic crisis.Tatar invasion, the Livonian War oprichnina Ivan the Terrible led to destabilization and contributed to the growth of discontent authority.

Solovyov believed that the main cause of the Troubles was a clash of the old druzhina started with new state, as expressed in the struggle of the kings of the boyars.N. Kostomarov considered the cause of the Time of Troubles machinations of the Polish king, and papal authority.B. Klyuchevskii saw the roots of the problem in the peculiarities of development of the Russian state: that the supreme power was peculiar anomaly - the king of profit is not only a ruler, but also the owner in Russian land.Some historians have seen the very cause of the Troubles reign of Ivan the Terrible, his irrational internal policy, which led to the division of society into groups in the struggle for land.

Stages turmoil

first stage was characterized by the struggle for the throne of various candidates.The first after the death of Ivan the Terrible ascended the throne of his son Theodore, who was incapable of governing the country, and it is actually transferred to his wife's brother - Boris Godunov.His tsartsvovanie accompanied by severe shocks to the country.Board "imposter" provoked a strong popular discontent.

Troubles in Russia actually begins with the appearance in Poland Falsdmitry (Otrepyev Gregory), who proclaimed himself surviving son of Ivan the Terrible.Part of the Russian population immediately supported it, then he has made to support the governor and the whole of Moscow.In 1605, he became the rightful king, but his excessive independence displeased the boyars, and the open support of serfdom against him and the peasantry.May 17, 1606 False Dmitry I was assassinated and succeeded by SHUISKI, subject to the limitation of its power.

second period of the Troubles began with a popular uprising Ivan Bolotnikov, which was directed against the existing power.The Battle of Moscow, Bolotnikov was defeated.But popular discontent has not stopped.Against this background, there is False Dmitry II.At the beginning of 1608 his army marched to Moscow.In July, he settled in Tushino near Moscow, declaring his true capital of Russia.

Shumsky in response, has concluded an agreement with Sweden and the Commonwealth, who started aggressive actions and False Dmitry II was forced to flee to Kaluga.Shumsky was deposed from the throne, and a monk.

In Russia, a period Semiboyarshina - interregnum, when power was a council of seven boyars.They formed an alliance with the Polish invaders, and in 1610 Moscow swore allegiance to the Polish king.At the end of the year he was killed by False Dmitry II, but the war for the throne did not stop.

Troubles in Russia came in the third period, which was characterized by the struggle against foreign invaders.Russian lands were united in the war against the Poles, which acquired a national character.Militia Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky came to Moscow in August 1612 and freed her.This meant that the Troubles in Russia of the 17th century ended.

Zemsky Sobor February 21, 1613 appointed the rightful king of the young Mikhail Romanov.This was preceded by a series of major events, such as the campaign against the Moscow people's volunteer corps, the convening of a Zemsky Sobor and Pozharsky work on choosing a legitimate sovereign.

Time of Troubles and its consequences

Country of Troubles came from ravaged treasury, which came into decline in trade and crafts.Results turmoil rejected Russia in the development of backward compared with Europe.To restore the economy, it took several decades.

Troubles in Russia has become a crucial period for the country.It identified two shortcomings that were peculiar to the Russian government.Mismatch claims boyars (who wanted to limit the powers of the king) the nature of sovereignty and the look on her people (who wanted to see the power of the absolute).Also revealed an uneven distribution of responsibilities between the classes, which brings all the private interests of the victim in the state.

Troubles All this has made the decision not just a dynastic question and present social and political struggles of the lower classes against the higher.But it did not lead to the disintegration of society, and foreign invasion aroused at all levels of a sense of national unity.