Many believe that the Zaporizhzhya Sich - is one single reinforcement, located in the area of the island Khortytsya, but it is quite a misconception.In fact, under this name history has combined a number of centers of the Dnieper Cossacks, who succeeded each other in series.And they were in different locations downstream of the Dnieper, to the south of the Dnieper rapids (hence the name "Zaporizhia").
first Zaporizhzhya Sich - a fortress of Khortytsia (Khortytsia Sich), founded in 1552 by Prince Dmitry Vyshnevetsky Small Island Khortytsya.It was destroyed by the Crimean Turkish troops already in 1557, but her idea - well-fortified military camp - soon revived in the form of the following associations Sich.
A total of Zaporozhye Sech history has eight Sich, each of which has existed from 5 to 40 years: Khortytsia, Tomakovskaya, Bazavlutskaya, Nikitinskaya, Chertomlytskaya, Kamensky, Alёshkovskaya and Podpolnenskaya.
What customs and practices prevailed there?It is known, for example, that for admission to the Sich man had to be free, unmarried, speak Ukrainian, profess orthodoxy (or to be baptized into the Orthodox faith).After the adoption of cops he had to undergo military training, which lasted for about seven years.
only authority at the camp was the Parliament, which addressed all the major issues.Parliament held on October 1 and then on January 1 and on the second or third day of Easter.Also, the parliament could be convened at any time at the request of the majority of the Cossacks.Decisions taken by the Parliament is mandatory for everyone.
community of Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossacks called Kosh.He shared a 38 smoking, which is a separate military units.Each kuren was from a few dozen to a few hundred Cossacks.In addition, the word "smoking" was another meaning - the so called residential building, in which there was "a military hut."
Despite the fact that all the decisions taken at the rads, Zaporizhzhya Sich had a head, which is the ataman.In addition to its main powers, he had the right to sign the death sentences for the perpetrators of the Cossacks.Particularly serious crime are the following: the murder of another Cossack Cossack;any, even minor, theft;drunken brawl;desertion;looting of the local people.
About Zaporozhye Cossacks, their steadfastness, courage, non-standard methods of struggle were a lot of legends.And the fact remains - they could successfully resist a strong, numerous and well-armed enemies.
In 1775 Russian Empress Catherine II signed the manifesto, according to which the Zaporizhzhya Sich, not only destroyed, but officially reckoned to Novorossiysk province, ending a self Zaporizhzhya Cossacks.The reasons for this fateful decision was several events.
Firstly, Russia has signed an agreement with the Crimean Khanate, of which it received access to the Black Sea, so the need to protect the southern borders disappeared.And secondly, the Cossacks actively participated in the Pugachev rebellion, so Catherine II feared that the revolt will spread to the steppes of Zaporozhye.
June 5, 1775 began the infamous liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich.Russian troops led by General-Lieutenant Peter Tekeli came to Zaporozhye night.They picked a day when the Cossacks celebrated yuletide green and were not ready to fight.At the end of the ultimatum Tekeli Zaporizhzhya Sich was surrendered without a fight.The treasury and archives were confiscated.Then Zaporizhzhya Sich was completely destroyed by artillery.
After the liquidation of its Sich Cossacks joined the ranks of the troops of the Russian army, and former sergeant became nobles.Peter Kalnyshevsky last Ataman Zaporizhzhya Sich, was exiled to the Solovetsky monastery, where he spent 28 years before serious death.Some of the Cossacks went to Turkey, where they founded the Danubian Sich, which was able to hold out until 1828.Transdanubian Cossacks fought on the side of Turkey, as well as participated in the suppression of the uprising.