extremely high ability to think distinguishes man from other highly organized animals.But it would have been much weaker without a soul, and yet powerful addition to it - speech.The value for the development of speech, thinking isolated many scientists of physiology and psychology.This for everyone - it's the main way of transmitting information, the necessary means of communication, with which he is involved in a social environment generates meaningful for themselves communication is what connects the child with his mother since the first days of life.It - it is also a source through which generations are transmitted cultural traditions that influence the thinking and actions, in our mentality.
There are a number of important roles it performs.In the scientific literature there are three functions of speech:
- representative provided through the speech signs (words) any objects and phenomena.The meaning of each word in our minds is associated with a certain idea of anything;
- expressive, expressing the subjective perception of the speaker, his emotional attitude to what he says, and besides, what's the point, he puts in the above;
- appellate function, encouraging.The spoken word necessarily implies the listener, and accordingly, it is expected the response to the statement, so it motivates to action, has a psychological impact on the communication partner.
to more clearly present the three basic functions of speech, give a simple example.The most common monosyllables "Snow" refers to weather precipitation.The speaker can say it with a certain intonation, emotional coloring, which will show his attitude to this phenomenon, his state of mind and other emotional shades.In addition, in this phrase, addressed to anyone, can contain a call to action (eg, warmly dressed or go sledding), a reminder about something, etc.
addition to the above, isolated and other more abstract features of speech, which, however, in common with them.
first one - signifying or function notation.The language has many words that represent objects and phenomena that are not in the actual field of perception, expressing abstract objects which are not subject to sensory experience.The words of one language for the media - is the intermediary, which is achieved through mutual understanding between people.At the same time, the word - it is the keeper of information about phenomena, events and objects.
second function of speech - synthesis.Speaking about it, I must say that one word can have many meanings, as well as many of the words in the language represent the same phenomenon, object or concept.Expressed in speech, only one of the meanings of the word allows for generalizations, and this is one of the most important factors in the development of abstract thinking.
Finally, we must highlight the importance of another function of speech - communicative.It is necessary to establish contacts with other people, to transmit information.In the process of communication is not just a person transfers to another their knowledge, opinions, and expresses an emotional attitude to the various phenomena of reality.Any verbal expression - is both a message and a way of expression rights.
Thus, it and its functions are an important link in the development and formation of human physiological, psychological and social aspects.Voice communication - it is the main way of informing others, it is a method of transmitting the expressive and emotional evaluation to the environment Finally, a way of expression, the expression of intention or intent of the speaker.
speech functions are closely linked in the process of verbal communication, they exist in parallel and each of them carries out its role.