History of Russia: stages of the civil war

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In this article we look at the stages of the civil war, and the reasons for and the results you can learn from others.

Russian Civil War took place in the early 20th century between different social groups, headed by the Bolsheviks and their opponents.The aim of both sides - to seize state power.So far there is no consensus about the date of the beginning of war in Russia.Some historians date it to October 1917, while others - in the spring-summer '18.

stages of the civil war in Russia:

1. The first phase of the civil war began in May and November of '18 with the formation of centers of the movement against the Bolsheviks.In February, in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) and Moscow by the SRs and Mensheviks, the Cadets was established 'Union of Russia's revival. "In March, there was "Union for Protection of Freedom and Motherland", led by BV Savinkov.Anti-Bolshevik movement spread among the Cossacks.In the southern Urals it was headed by AI Dutov and in the Kuban and Don - gene.PN Krasnov.In the North Caucasus formed Volunteer Army under the leadership of LG Kornilov and MV Alekseeva, which later became the basis of the White movement.With the support of Germany in Ukraine gene set mode.Krasnov.

Since May 1918, Russia conducted a policy of so-called "war communism".In September, the country launched a policy of "red terror" and the "White Terror".

In March of the same year the French troops, the United States and England landed in Murmansk, the troops of Japan - in Vladivostok, Germany occupied the territory of Ukraine, Crimea and part of the North Caucasus.In May, in the Urals, the Volga region and Siberia started an anti-Soviet speech Czechoslovak troops, which consisted mainly of former prisoners of war.The result of this revolt was the overthrow of Soviet power in Siberia and the Urals, and the subsequent formation of the new government of the Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries and the Cadets.

July 17 were shot without trial the royal family.

autumn '18 Czechoslovak troops reached the Volga River.Under the command of Vatsetis (from July 19 - Kamenev) was formed against them, the Eastern Front, who was able to beat the Czechs grab Samara, Kazan and Simbirsk.The first stage was completed restoration of Soviet power in the Urals and the Volga region.

2. The stages of the civil war: the second.Forms the center of the uprising across the country, the movement against the Bolsheviks had reached its climax.

November 1918 - AV Kolchak overthrew the Directory and establish a military dictatorship.He declares himself "Supreme Ruler of all Russia."Then Denikin united in the North Caucasus and the Kuban and Don Volunteer Army in VSYUR that in July 1919 there were already more than 160 000 people.This army under the leadership of Denikin in March '19 captures the Donbass.In the north of the country with the help of the Entente, led by General EK Miller formed an army, NN Yudenich was preparing a march on Petrograd, and the Ukraine supporters for independence united Petlyura.The plans of these leaders was a blow to the Soviet power, which they could not carry out because of the rivalry and disagreements.

The second stage is also expanding the scope of intervention, the withdrawal of troops from other countries to the territory of Russia.In April-August '19 withdrawn US forces, Britain, Germany and France.

3. Stages of the Civil War: the third (March 1919 -1920 gg.).This time the decisive battles, during which it became clear that the victory in the struggle for power, the Bolsheviks won.

In November '18 begins an offensive led by Kolchak.December 25 his troops occupied Perm, and 31 of the same month of the offensive was halted.In March '19 Kolchak army begins offensive toward the Volga, it takes Ufa, Samara and coming to Simbirsk.In April 19, the troops of the Eastern Front stop it, and in the summer in Siberia is discarded.Dissatisfied with this policy guerillas organize a rebellion.In the early 20, Kolchak shot.

In May '19, under the command of Yudenich begins an offensive on Petrograd, which stops the Red Army.In October, the troops pushed Yudenich in Estonia and there disarmed.

In July 1919 Ukraine captures Denikin and begins an offensive on Moscow.His army by September captures Eagle, Kursk and Voronezh.In early 1920, the army of Denikin was broken, and the Bolshevik power in the south of the country restored.

4. The final phase of the civil war (held in 1920 - 1922.).

In April 1920 Wrangel was elected "governor of Southern Russia."It forms a "Russian army", which begins an offensive on the Donbass.In October, the troops Wrangel defeated and pushed back to the Crimea.The defeat marked the end of the war Wrangel, though pockets of resistance remained in the border regions of Russia.

Russia's losses in the stages of the civil war are enormous.The population has decreased by 12 million people, and the amount of economic damage amounted to more than 50 billion. Rubles.