History of Chess

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Like other games, appeared on earth many centuries ago, chess was invented a long time ago.The history of chess, by some accounts, more than three thousand years.

truth of their age, no one will be able to install significantly.According to one of the most famous legends of chess history began about 1000 BC.e .: it to one ruler invented the great Indian mathematician who is credited with the construction and opening of the power of numbers.Initially, the game had to play four and destroy all the opponent's pieces, but over time it has transformed a little, and began to play chess for two players.

history of chess has continued to spread throughout the ancient India.Already in 600 BC of them mentioned in the Persian poems.The Arabs have perfected this game.The winner is considered the one who put the enemy "mat" - the situation in the game, when the figure of the "King" has no more available moves.Further dissemination of this intellectual game continued for several centuries throughout the world.History of chess in Europe started in the I th. N.e., when the Moors brought them to Spain.Next game spread to Italy, France and Portugal.The Catholic Church reacted negatively to chess, and for a long time forbade them.Despite church persecution, they continued their triumphant march around the world and continuously improved.It is believed that by the X V in.n.e.they have acquired a modern look.The history of chess in Russia began during the Mongol raids, even in the IX - X centuriesn.e., and later they often brought from Poland.Russian Church also forbade long game of chess, but in the tenth century VII played it the nobles and the clergy almost throughout Russia.

word "chess" originally comes from the Persian word "Shah" (King) and the ancient Arabic word "mat" (died).After the appearance of chess in Europe about the game and its theory it has been written many books.Modern officially recognized rules of chess are little different from those which have played the game 500 years ago.

Chess game - a competition in which two opponents by certain rules by turns move pieces on the 64-cell board with black and white squares.The most common of its kind that has stood the test of time are the classic chess.Rules of this game have been taken FIDE (World Chess Federation).The vast majority of international competitions are fixed in the 2004 FIDE Congress' rules of chess. "According to them, the field is called checkerboard black and white.Accordingly, the opponent played chess pieces white and black (dark) colors.The printed image is called a chess board diagram.The competition board is positioned to the left field corner, closest to each player, it was black.Direct longitudinal row of cells (fields), starting and ending at the extreme (boundary) fields, called vertical.Cross a number of fields is called horizontal.A number of fields, touching only the corners, called the diagonal.Several series of contiguous fields, the centers of which are connected to one segment of a straight line is called a line of chess.

all chess pieces are named, and the trajectory of the original location.The moves are recorded with certain rules and symbols in the form of text, called chess notation.All the pieces belonging to one of the six types, each of which has its own properties, manifested in their movement.Rivals at the beginning of the game each have 16 pieces.A full-color set: king, queen, 2 elephant and a horse, two rooks, 8 pawns.Color figures determined by lot.The original location of the chess pieces is always the same, in certain fields.Fields with figures called busy, and without them - free.The pawns are placed on the fields 2 and 7 horizontal;boat - on the corner fields around them - horses behind them - the elephants.Queens are located on the fields d1, d8, and kings - to e1, e8.

For any chess player in one of the three possible results of the party: loss, draw, win.When scoring the winning opponent declared the loser, "mat", while a draw is declared "stalemate."

chess theory represents the whole body of knowledge about the laws and peculiarities of this game.It assesses each situation and recommendations to promote the figures to the target.Without studying the theory of chess can not be thoroughly study this game and make it a success.