management as the art of managing originated in ancient times.His description as a form of human activity is found in the writings of Socrates.The ancient Greek philosopher who lived in the first millennium BC, describes the process of managing people as an attempt to put a specific person to a specific place and get him the desired outcome of activities.Judging by the many extant sources, the history management originated several thousand years ago, and she has passed the science of managing people in its formation a few specific steps.
prehistoric people who lived in isolation, did not need to manage their activities from the side.The main purpose of their existence was to survive in the harsh conditions of nature.Our ancient ancestors combined to living together in tribes, already in need of that next to them was a wise man, to make the best decisions for the whole tribe, to resolve conflicts within the tribe, the sentencing of the punishment in something innocent.This man became the leader.With the proliferation of social groups of people was necessary division of labor, however, all this work also had to be controlled by someone from the outside.So there are the first rudiments of management of individual groups of people separated by their professional status.
history of management in the modern sense of the word begins with the industrial revolution that occurred in the 17-19 centuries.It was during this period in Europe, there are the first manufacturing companies in need of a truly talented managers.Management Science develops at the end of the 19th century.During this time, there are the first work of scientists devoted to this type of human activity.
Stages and schools in the history of management
management as a professional activity was first seen by American H. Tawney in his report prepared for presentation at the meeting of the Society of Mechanical Engineers.At this meeting he first expresses his opinion that the society needs a training-managers.
total in the history of economic thought of the 20th century formed the five schools of management:
- School of Management Science (founder F. Taylor, author of many books on the subject);
- Administrative School (ancestor - French engineer A. Fayolle);
- quantitative school (representatives - D. Thompson, G. Ackoff, D. March);
- behaviourist school (its formation is associated with the development of sociology and psychology, known representatives considered Charles Bernard F. Herzberg, C. Argyris);
- School of Human Relations (founder - American E. Mayo).
History of management includes five basic stages of development management, the first of which begins at the dawn of the 20th century and coincides with the birth of the school of scientific management.The emergence of the administrative school Fayol in the first decade of the 20th century marked the onset of the second stage of development management.
At the same time in the United States begins the story of financial management.The Second World War had a significant influence on the development of management thought, the first twenty years after the end of the match with the third stage of optimization of management.
next stage in the development of management activities related to science - psychology, which is gaining momentum.For the fifth stage for Management Development (80th.) Is characterized by the discovery of such a powerful mechanism as the organizational structure.Modern management is associated with the development of computer technology and automation.Today, the story does not end management, management science continues to evolve and improve.