successful offensive and the Balkans boost Russian troops during the Russian-Turkish war, which took place in 1877-1878, forced the Turkish government to send commissioners to the armistice.The result was the signing of the Treaty of Berlin.
Under the Treaty of San Stefano was formed an independent state - the Great Bulgaria, whose territory stretched from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea.Turkey should withdraw all its troops from it.To Russian land back Akkerman district of Bessarabia, which had been taken away in 1856 at the Paris peace treaty, and Izmail district.In addition, it provides for the reimbursement of the costs of war.However, the Berlin Congress has not given the opportunity to carry out all the preliminary Russian conditions.
In England and Austria-Hungary, these conditions caused extreme indignation.Since the capture of Constantinople and the Straits was a long-standing dream of England, she could not allow herself to get ahead of Russian.In addition, the British government feared that the inclusion of Bulgaria in the sphere of influence of Russia will be a great Mediterranean power.Soon after it was announced that the British government is not going to accept peace terms valid.
same position of hostility and took Avsto Hungary, began to move troops to the Russian border.Together with England, they demanded the transfer of issues "all preliminary bases of peace" to the Berlin Congress had considered an international conference.Russia found itself in a bind, since the war is brewing with England could lead to catastrophic consequences, and hope for the support of Germany were in vain, despite the fact that it was Bismarck incited Russia to war with Turkey.The result of these circumstances was the Congress of Berlin, which was convened in 1878.
June 13, 1878 in Berlin, an international congress was opened.It was attended by the following countries: Russia, Germany, England, Turkey, Austria-Hungary, Italy, the Balkan States, and France."Master" spoke, of course, Bismarck.
diplomatic struggle was extremely tense.Treaty of Berlin was able to sign after only a month after the opening of the conference.
Despite the fact that the main stages of the decision of the Congress have been stipulated in the Anglo-Russian agreement, Bulgaria's borders were not clearly defined.This point was very important for all the participants of the Congress, as the Balkan passes were serious strategic importance.
England, and with it, and Austria-Hungary, not without the support of Germany has made significant changes in the conditions of Treaty of San Stefano, but the Slavic peoples it was extremely disadvantageous.Berlin Treaty stipulates that the Bulgarian Principality will be though independent, but a vassal, geographically limited Bulgarian mountains.The southern part of the received partial autonomy while remaining a part of the Ottoman Empire.Another result was the return of Macedonia under Turkish rule.
Congress of Berlin in 1878 confirmed the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro.Austria-Hungary at the end of the negotiations received the right to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina, and between the territories of these countries introduced by Austro-Hungarian troops.Thus, the powers wanted to prevent the unification of the Slav neighboring states.Control over the coast of Montenegro also provides the Austro-Hungarian Empire.Contributions, which are imposed on Turkey, fell to 300 million. Rubles.Russia got only Kardagan, Batum, and Kars, Bayazet is returned to Turkey.
Berlin Congress redrew the map of the Balkans, and thus gave rise to numerous conflicts in this part of the Earth than generally aggravate the international situation.Even after the liberation of the Balkan states did not cease to be an arena in which rivaled the great European powers.