When a firm is small, any questions relating to subordination and separation of powers are solved simply.But is it worth it to grow up a little bit, and it inevitably begins to have difficulty 'transition' age: some people have too much power, others can not withstand the load of their duties, others just take time off from work, etc.This situation is, I think, is familiar to many.To quickly go through this period, the head should be carefully reflect on what a company has to be the ultimate organizational structure.Let us consider briefly the advantages and disadvantages of the main types.
linear functional organizational structure
Systems using this type of organization of interaction, built on the principles of a rigid hierarchy.Such a scheme is well-proven in small companies and is based on the credibility and professionalism of the head, which, as a rule, is also the owner of a company.The essence of such a structure is that employees subject to his immediate superiors, with individual vertical can perform special functions (OTC, accounting, security).
Pros such labor organization that are all set to receive the result of labor, there is a good control and discipline, and manufactured products are of uniform quality stably.The main drawbacks that has this organizational structure, this great loss of time for important decisions, distortion and loss of information during transmission through the hierarchy, as well as the lack of flexibility.Since at the present time the market situation is changing quite rapidly, such a structure is outdated and is suitable only for small firms or monopolies such as "Gazprom".
Divisional organizational structure
is a form of organization of work, which involves the operation of relatively independent units.The management of such divisions is carried out from headquarters.The principle of creating divisions may be based on the geographical location of fixed assets, product mix, targeting corporate and mass customers, etc.This type of construction business in the country was quite a spread.Its main advantage - it's great quality customer service and flexibility.But the downside is attributed to the complexity of the control branches (divisions) and the high cost of management because of the emergence of many directors.
Project organizational structure
This is the most youthful and progressive kind of interaction between employees.Companies in which this structure was implemented, appeared in the second half of the twentieth century.At the time, market volatility has forced many owners to expand their product range to be able in time to capitalize on the changing demand and the current situation.This structure involves the organization unit under each new major customer.This department has a project director and all the units at different levels of subordination.And the same staff may participate in several projects.The advantage of such an organization is to maximize flexibility and major shortcomings - is the high cost of maintenance managers.
matrix organizational structure
It's kind of symbiosis of linear-functional management with the project.Despite the fact that the term has become very fashionable now, to implement a matrix approach in practice is not so easy.Nevertheless, the company General Electric, which is developing its managing almost 12 years, finally decided that it is the best organizational structure.An example of the success of this and many other companies use matrix approach is haunted by many leaders, and because it is so popular right now.
essence of this structure is that the control is performed both vertically and horizontally.That is, here, instead of one, there are several equal centers, which usually act as project managers.For example, all marketers operating in each of the verticals included in the marketing department.Matrix approach is good because it eliminates the disadvantages of the linear structure - distortion (loss) information, and lack of flexibility.However, its implementation is high risk of conflict of interest.When the violation of the principle of unity of command, it is sometimes difficult to figure out whose job is to perform the first and what to do if multiple orders contradict each other.
Conclusion As you can see, every type of control is good in its own way.Ideal universal version does not exist, and the choice of the organizational structure should be guided by the factors that directly affect the activity of each particular company.