Aesthetics - the philosophy of beauty and usefulness

The concept of aesthetics came to us from ancient Greece.When the ancient philosophers thought about the first time the different categories and definitions of human activity, they gave the name of reflecting on the beauty and ugliness, and the perception of this phenomenon feelings.Later they began to believe that aesthetics - a special theory of what is beauty.Also, we reflect on what form it may take, whether it exists in nature or only in writing.We can say that this teaching as a discipline was born simultaneously with the philosophy and is part of it.The Pythagoreans, "combining algebra and harmony," the concept of beauty and joined the numbers. Aesthetics - this value.Performances of the ancient world of myth to categorize

Greek philosophers emphasized the concept of the origin of the world out of chaos, and his desire for harmony.Because aesthetics they belong to the category of the ontology.Thus, the macro and the microcosm, that is, man and the universe were to be similar to each Drogo, including beauty.The mythology of antiquity, too, responded to this worldview.Sophists noticed that aesthetic ideas often depend on the person and his perception.So they put a number value in the aesthetics of the categories that make up the foundation of personality.Socrates, on the contrary, suggested that aesthetics - it is an ethical concept, and immorality is ugly.His ideas were largely developed by Plato, who noted that the idea of ​​the beautiful, we get "over as if trying to remember."They come from the world of the gods.And finally, in Aristotle we find a whole theory that beauty and creativity require philosophical reflection and scientific definition.He first suggested a term such as "category of aesthetics", and brought them into scientific circulation.Aristotle distinguishes between the basic terms in which to express the idea of ​​the work, "beautiful", "sublime", "ugly", "vile", "comic", "tragic."He also tried to establish links between these categories and their interdependence.

Development of aesthetic doctrines in Europe until recent times

During the Middle Ages, especially early, dominated Christianize Plato's doctrine that aesthetics comes from God, and therefore it should be "inscribed" in theology and subordinatedhim.Thomas Aquinas develops the theory of beauty and usefulness in terms of Aristotle.He reflects on how the category of aesthetics designed to bring man to God, and how they are manifested in nature created by Him.During the Renaissance, the latter theory has become very popular, because the search for harmony in nature through mathematics and the expression of it by means of pictures and words become the main method of the philosophy of beauty.Thus arose the aesthetics of art in the definition of genius Leonardo da Vinci.In the 19th century was dominated by the three theories that have fought each other for the then popular among intellectuals.First of all, this is a romantic concept argue that aesthetics - it is a gift of nature to man, and you just need to be able to hear her voice, to embody it in his work.Then - the Hegelian philosophy, argues that the theory of the beautiful - is a form of the absolute idea, and it has a certain historical stage of development, as well as morality.Finally, Kant's ideas that aesthetics is our idea of ​​nature as something having expediency.This picture is in our heads, and we ourselves bring it to the world.In fact, the aesthetics come from the "realm of freedom" and not nature.In the late 19th century, a crisis of traditional lines of a nice theory, but it is already the subject of an entirely different conversation.