18th century in world history is characterized as the beginning of the era of modernization and enlightenment.Of course, the process of improvement occurred over several centuries.But in the 18th century, it was laid the beginning of the previous update of the traditional society.These processes have led to the emergence of modern society.
particular importance in the development of the Russian Empire belongs to the 18th century.This period is estimated as complicated and contradictory historical stage.It remained unresolved and disputed many of the problems.
foreign policy of Russia of the 18th century was accompanied by a change in all sectors of social and political life.The changes affected the economic and cultural spheres.Transformation occurred in the social and political relations.
modernize the Russian Empire under the European standard for the first time tried to Peter 1. The second attempt was made by Catherine 2. As a result of radical transformations power has become a powerful world empire.
intensity increases in agricultural and industrial production, Russia has achieved some success in establishing trade relations, it has successfully developed and domestic trade in the country.Strengthen its position local and central authorities.It began accelerated development of connected areas.
Russia's foreign policy in the 18th century historians divided into three time phases.
The first stage begins in the reign of Peter 1 and completed after his death.The first event, which marked Russia's foreign policy in the 18th century, is the Great Northern War.
next step is closely linked with the struggle for the throne after the death of Peter 1, this stage ends with the death of Elizabeth (the daughter of the emperor).The main events that marked Russia's foreign policy in the 18th century at this stage - the Russian-Turkish and the Seven Years War.
beginning of the third phase coincides with the ascent to the throne of Catherine the Great 2.The main events of this era are a war with Turkey, the conquest of the Crimea, the partition of Poland.
Russia's foreign policy in the 18th century was carried out primarily with the aim of transforming the country into a full-fledged strong maritime power.It should be noted that the transformation within the state and actions on the international scene were linked.Russia's economy has developed on the background of the output state in the foreign sector.
From the outset, the international activities of the government of Peter 1 had the same direction as in previous times.Movement of Russia was directed to the south.The government sought to eliminate the Wild Field, which arose in ancient times with the formation of nomadic culture.Elimination of the area freed Russian trade route to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.To achieve these goals were taken trips to Crimea Golitsyn and "Azov campaigns" of Peter.
The main result of the international activities of the Russian Empire in the 18th century is to transform the country into a powerful naval state with full-fledged navy and army.Over the centuries Power also continues to strengthen the natural geographic and ethnographic borders.Finally realized this desire was the beginning of the next century.
foreign policy of Russia of the 19th century marked by the addition of the entire eastern part of the Baltic coast, the acquisition of the Aland Islands and Finland.In addition, we expanded to the southwestern border.At the same time, historians have noted that with the establishment of the natural boundaries of the foreign policy of the state beginning to bifurcate.Thus, we formed different purposes when moving to the east, Asian, European (south-west) direction.