Bourgeois reform 60-70 years of XIX century in Russia

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Since the beginning of the nineteenth century in Europe begins the industrial revolution.It leads to the need to reform many areas.Quickly "rebuilt" in a new way, European countries considerably outstripped Russia.That, in turn, is getting involved in the Crimean War, once again saw the weakness of the Tsarist regime and the imperial policy in general.The country has hung heavy atmosphere of waiting.

Alexander II was well aware that he will have to carry out reforms of 60-70 years - this time demanded a new, rapidly leaves behind Russia in Europe.Note that the king needed considerable endurance and courage to go on this unpopular step for some classes.At the same time, there was no other choice.Bourgeois reform of 60-70 years of the 19th century were to be held.

Training was a long six years.The first ideas arose as early as 1855, but have not received a significant development because of the change of the emperor (this year succeeded Nicholas I, Alexander II).The end of the Crimean War made it possible to engage in domestic politics more detail.Now the bourgeois reforms of 60-70 years have been actively negotiated in the highest circles.The first and most important reform - "Manifesto abolishing serfdom" in 1861 this document to mark the sixth anniversary of stay on the throne, Alexander II gave peasants personal freedom.The move pushed the rest of the bourgeois reforms of 60-70 years, made it possible to carry out other significant changes.However, this benefit was painted a negative shade.Together with the peasants were personally free ... Nothing.The land - their main nurse, remained at the mercy of the landlord.For her, the farmer had to pay the ransom money, which he was not.In fact, people have been abandoned to their fate.To a large extent it struck reform and landlord economy, because the masses of peasants moved to the cities for work.

Such a radical change in the country resulted in the other bourgeois reforms of 60-70 years.These include zemstvo, judicial, military, municipal and education.

on judicial reform introduced prosecutor and lawyer.Now the court has become controversial.The key decision-making has become a jury that handed down the sentence on the guilty person.The role of the judge assigned only to monitor the accuracy of the passage of the process.

Zemskaya reform included the introduction of self-management in the field.Now zemstvos included representatives of all classes.Among the merits zemstvoes worth noting the establishment of a network of educational and medical institutions.

military reform involves the formation of a regular army by universal labor service.However, the timing of its considerably reduced.Instead of 25 years is now reaching a maximum of six years in certain military branches.At the service were called fit state of health men who have reached the age of twenty-one.

had certain advantages, and educational reform.According to her, every child had to get a basic education, access to higher education is formally opened to members of all social classes, universities receive greater autonomy.

bourgeois reforms of 60-70 years will undoubtedly have a positive impact.Thanks to him Russia from an agrarian country into an industrial country began to turn, although the agricultural sector is still held large amounts of the country's economy.Nevertheless, the industry continues to develop rapidly.Such changes are not supported by all.Alexander II turned against persecution by the populists, who did not once attempt on his life.In 1881, such an attempt was a success, but the car reform has been launched, and the country finally entered a new stage of development.