world of living creatures that populate our planet, it is extremely diverse.Some of them are found only in the aqueous medium, the other portion adapted to carry out the water life and the part - on land.And every kind of living organisms adapted to their habitat.Respiratory animals are different, and their type and structure depends not only on where they live, but also the complexity of the device body.
most simple and primitive animals - are single-celled, which include, for example, the amoeba, ciliate-slipper, Sporozoa.They respiratory system are not generated.They breathe oxygen that is dissolved in water.That, in turn, enters the body through a body surface by means of osmosis.
coelenterates (sponges, hydra, jellyfish, corals) that are multicellular animals, the breath also occurs through the body surface.This suggests the primitive features of the structure of coelenterates.
Most parasitic worms not breathing skin, that is, oxygen penetrates the skin, but water annelids there are special r
to the type of arthropods include a large number of organisms that live in all environments, and therefore the respiratory system have varied.In terrestrial arthropods (spiders, scorpions, insects) formed a special respiratory system - lung bags, trachea, lungs.
scorpions and spiders primitive breath at the expense of the lung sacs.This deepening of the abdomen, which are filled with hemolymph and contain numerous leaf-shaped plate.Within the walls of these plates gas exchange occurs, oxygen enters the pulmonary bag through spiracles, which are located on the abdomen.Most spiders are simultaneously and lungs and trachea.
trachea - a thin tube that permeate the whole body of the animal.Through holes trachea opening out in the first segment of the abdomen.Lungs have a primitive structure, and therefore better suited to the trachea breathing atmospheric oxygen.
Respiratory insects - it's also the trachea, penetrating the whole body.They seem to branch out, enveloping internal organs of the animal.Tracheal end even more thin tubes - tracheoles that penetrate into the cells.Tracheal insects freely communicate with the environment, but their ends they have the reflex apparatus by which reduces the loss of water during the flight of an insect.
arthropods that inhabit the ponds (crayfish, crabs, daphnia, horseshoe crabs) breathe using gills skin.These gills located on the extremities of the animal and have a large number of thin plates, through which the exchange of gases.On land animal remains alive until the plates are wetted with water.
RESPIRATORY shellfish can be gills and lungs.Lungs breathe land or freshwater gastropods.Mantle cavity of the snails in the process of evolution has become easy.This light has a spout, which is connected with the environment and can be closed.
Freshwater gastropods breathe atmospheric air, for inspiration, they rise to the surface.Walls thick braid lung blood vessels, as blood is enriched with oxygen and carbon dioxide is released.Marine mollusks breathe using gills with.Gills are a lattice plate, covered with ciliated epithelium.Through the work of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium takes place entering the water into the mantle cavity.This water brings oxygen, which is oxidized in the gills.With oxygen and nutrients enter the body, and the decomposition products, together with carbon dioxide output from the siphon mantle cavity.