The most famous organized crime groups 90.

phenomenon of criminal gangs have flourished in our country in the 90s of the last century, it will always remain one of the most recognizable features of the historical epoch.Organized crime has become a striking social phenomenon that emerged from the wreckage of the Soviet Union and its impact on all spheres of life of the people of that time.Language culture fringe of society flowed a broad stream in the media.Neither film about OPG 90 is not without scenes of murders and nasiliyana and images of the "lads" epic purchased easily recognizable features.The so-called "concept" of the criminal world suddenly became acute demand of social, spiritual and cultural patterns of conduct for a generation of former citizens of the USSR.The echoes of those times still remain long in the culture and language of our people in a very stable idiom that occasionally slips even in official speeches, sounding at the highest state level.

life philosophy of modern times

Over the last two decades of the history of Soviet society to actively disseminate alternative value system, which was based on the views and ideas of the underworld.Gradually she began to play an increasingly important role in the lives of the younger generation.Its popularity has been associated with the changing social and cultural demands of the Soviet society and the crisis of the official ideology.In an era of restructuring the old system of Soviet values ​​and finally collapsed in the void muddy stream in the heads of people collapsed alternative ideology, which at that time was the most powerful and socially demanded "philosophy" of life, which becomes the most important question of survival."Die you today, and I - tomorrow" - in the underworld has long been prepared verbal formula, which is on the patterns, began to be built on the entire life of the former Soviet Union.

role thieves subculture

Thieves subculture in the last decade of the Soviet Union became the catalyst for the formation of OPG 90.Any business in the country for a long time is a criminal offense, that is what I do very crooks and gangsters.From this point of view, speculation and fartsovka did not differ from pickpocketing and drug trafficking.In recent years, the Soviet government had permitted certain forms of business at the legislative level and members of criminal groups were able to operate legally.But the real way out of the criminal field was more complicated.

Criminal OPG '90s as a way of organizing and doing business in the transition period

efficient and highly profitable business in those days, was possible only if the involvement of criminal and semi-criminal methods of enrichment.One of the forms of organized crime groups have become successful business 90s.For the representatives of the criminal world has opened up new possibilities of enrichment by means of force.The emergence of the legal forms of business to broaden the base for the collection of tribute in favor of a criminal group that has traditionally been practiced in relation to any business in the Soviet Union.There were objects of ownership, which did not exist before.Factories, restaurants, parking lots, shops and markets - all require confirmation of ownership rights on the basis of not only the laws of the state, but also on the basis of the laws of the underworld, where he plays the role just right of the strongest.Risks that any business has been linked to the transitional period, demanded additional insurance in the form of power assistance that might be needed at any time.It took a well-organized power structures consisting of people with a good physical preparation.Thieves subculture had already prepared the necessary personnel from among the younger generation of the last years of the Soviet Union.Natural (informal) youth associations received professional leaders from among the members of those or other criminal communities that began to transform the crowd of street thugs in a well-organized police units.

main features that have become organized crime groups to perform 90 in conditions of market economy

organized crime have become an important new type of multi-function and element in the life of post-Soviet society.It was a highly commercial enterprise aimed at extracting the maximum profit in favor of senior executives of their leaders.You can list the main activities that were characteristic of the OCG that time.

  1. Insurance activities.OPG could be real, and sometimes the only guarantee for debt repayment, reimbursement of or other damage, compliance with contracts and commercial transactions.
  2. Security.Protection of life, health and integrity of the property, security in transactions in those days was a very popular service.
  3. informal arbitration in resolving disputes in every sphere of life, ranging from the regulation of commercial relations and ending the conflicts that have arisen on the basis of those or other speech acts.
  4. gain a competitive advantage in business, subject to its percentage of the profits of the enterprise.These include ensuring advantages in legal and property disputes in the official state structures.
  5. control over observance of the unwritten laws of thieves and concepts that have long been considered the main regulator of relationships of all participants of any business, both legal and illegal.

activities of criminal gangs has brought huge profits to their organizers and also made it possible to acquire ownership of real estate, businesses and other tangible assets.The largest state in Russia were formed with the direct involvement of various organized crime groups.Some of the activities of organized crime groups 90 gradually became the prerogative of the state directly or indirectly, through a special businesses such as debt collection firms.

OPG organization and the distribution of its income

composition of organized crime groups can be divided into four main levels.Fighters, which included young people from 16 to 25 years, were lower-level organized crime groups and were directly involved in military actions.Shootouts OPG 90th place in their presence, but they were just in time to perform the senior management team.They collected the tribute, performed various tasks, accompanied by a guide during important events and meetings.Usually, their hands bloody crimes were carried out and the other dirty work.Soldiers were obtained from several hundred to several thousand dollars a month, depending on the job, and submitted to strict discipline under pain of severe penalties.The structure of middle managers were people who had the right to receive a small percentage of the total profits of organized crime groups from a few dozen to several hundred thousand dollars a month.These members of the criminal community directly involved in the demolition, was administered "arrow", organized major events, liquidation and so on. High School organized crime groups - from 3 to 7 people.They controlled the turnover of organized crime groups, which could range from a few tens to a few hundreds of millions of dollars a month.A separate group of OPG were officials and some law enforcement agencies, which provide information, administrative and sometimes legal cover for gang activity.These members OPG received solid contributions from the cash turnover of a criminal organization.

ways to generate income

Almost all criminal groups began operations with extortion of money from businessmen, started its activity in the late 80s.Under the threat of violence and the creation of other problems entrepreneurs have been forced to give the bandits to 50% of their income.Among criminal gangs existed competition for the opportunity to collect tribute from those or other entrepreneurs.The second source of income for beginners OPG was fraud, organized on the principle of the thieves in the game thimbles.Gradually the groups move on to the traditional criminal profitable business - trade in arms, drugs and organization of brothels.Illegally obtained money, the leaders of organized crime groups started to invest in legitimate business and highly profitable real estate.To provide competitive advantages to businesses and controlled use force.For all assassinations are commercial interests and a desire to assign the sources of income of competing criminal groups.The main leaders of the criminal methods of enrichment OPG has always been torture, murder, forgery, fraud, money laundering, the organization of various forms of illegal business, smuggling and bribery.Organized crime in the 90s of the last century has acquired such dimensions and shape that threatened the integrity and security of the state.

most powerful Russian organized crime groups

Rating OPG Russia 90 should be based on the degree of impact that group across the country, the duration of this effect and profitability of criminal business.The largest and most influential organized crime groups based in Moscow, presided over by industrial enterprises throughout Russia.By the scale of impact on the Russian economy such a rating should be headed by organized crime groups in Moscow 90 "Izmailovsky" and "Solntsevsky-Orekhovskaya."

«Izmailovskaya" OPG

This is the oldest group, which originated as an association of youth gangs Izmailovsky district in the middle of the 80s.Starting criminal business was quite standard - extortion, robbery, income from "napёrstochnikov" and so forth. The group always has a strong management team.All power in this criminal business community has always belonged to a very narrow group of authorities, the most famous of whom was Anton Malevsky (Izmailovo).Subsequently, under the wing of the group began to work a number of other organized crime groups, such as "Galyanovskaya", "Perovskaya" and others."Izmailovskaya" OPG gradually evolved into a powerful financial and economic empire, in whose activities were entire sectors of the economy, such as aluminum, pulp and paper, wood processing enterprises, export timber abroad, oil and gas sector, a number of domestic and foreign banks.But for this particular area of ​​organized crime groups it becomes gambling, whose traditions date back to the "napёrstochnikam" flea markets "Izmailovo", "Vernissage", as well as the bus station "Schelkovskogo."The main difference between the Izmailovo OPG is broad support from the authorities, which allowed organized crime groups to become one of the most successful businesses today's Russia.

«Solntsevsky-Orekhovskaya" coalition

separate structure "Solntsevsky-Orekhov" OPG formed in different places and under different circumstances in the late 80s.In the early 90s a number of independent OPG Southwestern district of Moscow created a powerful coalition leadership in which at various times belonged to the representatives of those or other organized crime groups included in its composition.In this criminal coalition includes such well-known organized crime groups as "Chertanovskaya", "Cherёmushkinskaya", "Yasenevo", "Orekhovskaya" and others. The history of "Solntsevo-Orekhov" OPG is associated with the most famous episodes of the war crime 90.About the events photographed a huge number of films and documentaries, and written hundreds of books.The most famous leader of the OPG is Sergey Timofeev ("Sylvester"), the leader of "Orekhov" gang, which is considered one of the bloodiest, who only knew Russian criminal.OPG 90 were engaged in a fierce competition, resulting in the deaths of the brightest leaders "Solntsevsky-Orekhovskaya" coalition, including Timofeev exploded in his "Mercedes" in 1994 showdowns between the leaders of "Solntsevo-Orekhovskaya"Coalition and other groups associated with the most episodes of bloody crime war between OPG 90.Photos and reports of the brutal murders of "Solntsevo" and "Orekhov" factions did not descend from the villages of the press and on television a few years.With a history of "Solntsevo-Orekhov" OPG related to many thriving now, businesses operating in various sectors of the economy in our country and abroad.The operation of this united bows gradually came under the law and has spread to all spheres of life of modern Russia, including politics.

short century bandit career

most famous organized crime groups in Moscow 90 gradually lost their influence, and their harsh fate awaited the participants."Kurgan", "Balashikha", "Medvedkovo", "Odintsovo" and other well-known organized crime groups have lost their influence, having lost a capable and reputable management team by the end of the 90s.The leaders of the factions destroyed each other, fighting for power and influence, and the survivors received long prison terms.Combating organized crime is gradually becoming the most important task of the state and at the beginning of zero, this task has become more and more successfully resolved.

Regional OPG

organized crime early 90s was commonplace, affecting all regions of the country, and on profitability, many regional OPG did not yield capital.According to the cruelty and brutality of some regional groups were significantly superior to the capital and entered the bloodiest pages in the crime 90.OPG Kazan began to form as early as the 70s of the last century.Famous bands such as "anyhow" and "film strip" differed boundless cruelty even in the years of the Soviet Union.The victims of acts of intimidation often becomes completely random people, and the terror they unleashed on the streets of the capital of Tatarstan, was akin to primitive savagery.Slonovskii OPG, led by Vyacheslav Ermolov nicknamed "Elephant", was able to extend its influence beyond the Ryazan region.Since criminal business as a gang of racketeers and extortionists, "Slonovtsy" created one of the most successful regional businesses whose turnover amounted to hundreds of millions of dollars.Many members of the gang still occupy an important position in politics and the economy, and the Yermolov was a successful citizen of the European Union.Grouping "Uralmash" actively engaged in political activities, and its leader Alexander Khabarov was a deputy city council and head of the Yekaterinburg public and political union (OPS), a part of which were all active members of organized crime groups.Almost every town had a very powerful organized crime groups, whose leaders were concurrently very big businessmen.For example, Igor Chikunov, who led the powerful organized crime groups Saratov, 90, was the largest shareholder in the oil business.Nikolai Gavrilenkov, leader of the "Velikolutskoy" OPG, was well-known businessman in St. Petersburg, is engaged in restaurant and beer business.Leaders 'volgovskih' groups to actively influence the activities of concern "AvtoVAZ".Many businessmen are acquired his fortune by criminal way, died in the criminal wars.For example, the city where there were assassinations as a result of clashes OPG 90 - Saratov.Chikunov and his gang of 11 people were shot during a card game in his office.

OPG those years in our time

Compared with 90 organized crime groups, in our time classic OPG survived only in small provincial towns.A well-known example is the band of A. hoe.In remote from the big cities of the country still occur disassembly of the old rules, with weapons and the involvement of a large number of participants.In more remote provinces of cases of "arrow" and clarified the relationship is not "legal framework" of ships, and in the open field and in the language of "concepts".High-profile assassinations became the basis of a huge number of movie scenes on criminal activities of organized crime groups 90.Documentary films shot on virtually every known band, and images of killers, gang leaders and members of the 90 acquired clear literary and cinematic canon.Modern criminal gruppirovi more compact, conspiratorial and are not able to deploy such a wide range of activities, which was at OPG 90.Photos and footage of the crime 90s indicate that confidence in the impunity of gang members, who are so fond of everything that might highlight their status and separated from the crowd.