The brains of birds: structure and function

brain - the main regulator of the body's functional items, as well as its behavioral acts that are aimed at adaptation to the external conditions of life.

medulla oblongata is a continuation of the spinal cord.It has gray matter, located outside, and white matter located inside.Accumulations of cell bodies of neurons in the medulla to form the nucleus.Medulla oblongata - a vital organ.With his defeat is a violation of somatic and autonomic reflex acts and the destruction of his death occurs.Medulla performs the introducer and reflex functions.The brain regulates the following reflexes: cardiac, vascular tone, breathing, coughing, sneezing, salivation, swallowing, gastric and pancreatic secretion, vomiting, metabolic, tearing, blinking and closing eyelids, skeletal muscle tonic reflexes.

with the activity centers of the medulla oblongata is associated manifestation of righting reflex posture.Reflexes such postures are called reflexes that cause redistribution of muscle tone of limbs by changing the position of the head.

brain and the cerebellum associated afferent and efferent fibers of the central nervous system with all departments, and through them with the muscles of the body and many receptors, as well as the autonomic nervous system.

The main functions of the cerebellum include: 1) the regulation of motor acts;2) regulation of autonomic processes.These functions cerebellum were established in experiments using techniques from extirpation, irritation, recording biopotentials cerebellum clinical observations.

cerebellum is well developed in birds and is of great importance for their highly developed sense of balance.In the first period after removal of the cerebellum bird can not fly and walk.When you try to move there convulsions, and the bird falls to the side.However, it may take the feed and drink.After a while the condition is improving and is capable of a bird, although with difficulty, stand, walk and fly.Scientific studies have shown that the cerebellum is located in the centers that regulate the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

bird brain (midbrain) is well developed and consists of two parts: the superior colliculus and legs.Colliculus has a front and rear lobes and nuclei formed by sensory neurons.

main functions of the midbrain: 1. The front part of the superior colliculus is the primary visual center.Here there is a preliminary analysis of light stimuli.With these centers are orienting reaction to light stimulation (head turn toward the light stimulus).The centers of the front of the colliculus regulate contraction of the pupil.2. The back of the colliculus performs orienting response to auditory stimuli (turn their heads toward the sound stimulus).3. The substantia nigra is involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle contractions.It also regulates the act of swallowing and breathing rhythm.4. The brain, or more precisely the midbrain has a center mounting rectifying reflexes.Rectifying reflexes are called reflexes that restore the normal position of the body after the breach.

reptile brain, unlike the brain of birds have poorly developed brain hemisphere.

diencephalon consists of the thalamus, and hypothalamus epithalamus.Diencephalon performs multiple functions.1. The thalamus is a collector that collects the impulses from all the body's receptors (visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile, temperature, pain, proprioceptors) and sends them to the cerebral hemispheres.2. In the nuclei of the thalamus the afferent impulses are subjected to the initial analysis and synthesis.3. In the thalamus, afferent impulses become emotional.There's a feeling of pain sensations pleasant and unpleasant.4. The thalamus regulates muscle tone plastic, through which birds can receive and store a variety of poses.5. epithalamus are centers regulating the activity of the olfactory analyzer.6. localized hypothalamic centers that regulate pupil dilation, blood pressure, breathing, motor and secretory functions of the digestive tract.7. The hypothalamus regulates body temperature.