The chemical composition of human bones.

From school lessons in chemistry, everyone knows that the human body contains nearly all the elements of the periodic table of Mendeleev.The percentage of some very significant, while others are present only in trace amounts.But each of the chemical elements in the body performs its role.The human body contains mineral substances in the form of salts, organic presented as carbohydrates, proteins, and others.Deficiency or excess of any of them leads to disruption of normal life.

The chemical composition of the bone includes a number of elements and their compounds, the more it is a salt of calcium and collagen, as well as the other, the percentage of which is much smaller, but their role is no less important.Durability and skeletal health depends on the balance of the composition, which in turn is determined by many factors, ranging from a normal power supply to the environmental conditions of the environment.

compounds that form the skeleton of

The chemical composition of bone material includes organic and inorganic origin.Exactly half of the mass - water, the other 50% divided ossein, fat and lime, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium salts and sodium chloride.On the mineral part accounts for about 22%, and organic represented proteins, polysaccharides, enzymes, citric acid and fills approximately 28%.The bones contain 99% of calcium, which is in the human body.A similar component composition have teeth, nails and hair.

transformations in different environments

anatomical laboratory can conduct the following analysis to confirm the chemical composition of bones.To determine tissue organic portion of the acid solution is subjected to the action of medium strength, such as hydrochloric acid, a concentration of about 15%.The resulting environment dissolves the calcium salts and osseinovy ​​"skeleton" remains intact.This bone gets the maximum elastic properties, it literally can be tied in a knot.

inorganic components of the chemical composition of human bone, can be identified by burning organic part, it is easily oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.The mineral skeleton is characterized by the same shape, but very fragile.The slightest mechanical impact - and it just poured out.

After contact with the bones in the soil bacteria convert organic matter and mineral part completely impregnated with calcium and turns to stone.In places where there is no access of moisture and microorganisms, tissues over time exposed to natural mummification.

through a microscope

Any textbook on anatomy tell about the chemical composition and structure of the bones.At the cellular level, the fabric is defined as a special type of connective.It is based on collagen fibers, surrounded by plates made up of crystalline substance - calcium mineral - hydroxylapatite (primary phosphate).Zvёzdopodobnye arranged parallel voids containing bone cells and blood vessels.With its unique microscopic structure such fabric is surprisingly easy.

main functions of compounds of different nature

Normal operation of the musculoskeletal system depends on what the chemical composition of bone, in sufficient quantities contained any organic and mineral substances.Lime and phosphate salts of calcium, which make up 95% of the inorganic portion of the skeleton, and some other mineral compounds determines the properties of hardness and strength of the bone.Thanks to them, the fabric is resistant to heavy load.

collagen component and its normal content responsible for this function, as elasticity, resistance to compression, tension, bending or other mechanical influences.But only in the agreed "union" organic and mineral component of bone tissue provides the unique properties that it possesses.

composition of bones in childhood

percentage of substances talking about what the chemical composition of human bone, may vary in one and the same representative.Depending on age, lifestyle, and other factors influence the amount of certain compounds may vary.In particular, children being formed bone and consists largely of organic components - collagen.Therefore, the skeleton of a child is more flexible and elastic.

for proper formation of tissues child intake of vitamins is very important.In particular such as D3.Only in the presence of its chemical composition of bone fully replenished with calcium.Deficiency of vitamin A can lead to chronic disease and excessive fragility of the skeleton due to the fact that the fabric is not filled just Ca2 + salts.

Skeleton adult

chemical composition of human bone, past adolescence, significantly different from children.Now the ratio of mineral and osseinovoy parts about equal.Disappears special flexibility of bone, but the strength of the skeleton due to the inorganic component is increased significantly.Physical properties are comparable with its reinforced concrete structures or cast iron, and firmness even more than the oak wood.

in full to ensure a balanced chemical composition of human bone (table below contains data on the normal percentage of all the substances that make up the skeleton) can be through proper lifestyle, good nutrition and health care.

name or type of connection percentage name of the mineral compound percentage
Water 50% calcium phosphate 85%
Fat 16% Phosphorous Calcium 9%
Organic 3veschestva (ossein) 12% Calcium carbonate 3%
Neorganichekie substance 22% The phosphate magnesium 1,5%
sodium chloride 0,25%
Potash 0,25%
other inorganic substances 1%
Total 100% 100%

Changes in the chemical composition of bones in older people

chemical composition of human bones broken with age, which leads to serious consequences.Elderly people complain of problems with the musculoskeletal system, they often fractures that heal longer than a child or an adult.This is a consequence of increasing the content of inorganic salts in the skeleton structure, their amount reaches 80%.Lack of collagen, therefore, the reduction of such properties as elasticity, leads to the fact that the bones become extremely brittle.Rebalancing is possible with the help of special medicines, but still, this process can not be stopped or reversed.This is a physiological feature of an organism.

for health and normal functioning of the skeleton is necessary from childhood to follow the correct filling of the bone all the chemical elements and compounds, but in this case is the ability to lead a full and active lifestyle.