some time in the school curriculum there were no such thing as astronomy.Now this discipline included in the mandatory curriculum.Astronomy begin studying in different schools in different ways.Sometimes this discipline for the first time appears in the schedule at the seventh graders, and in some schools it is taught only in the 11th grade.At school, the question arises, why do we need to teach the subject, astronomy?Let's find out what the science and knowledge of how space can be useful to us in our lives?
concept of the science of astronomy and the subject of its study
Astronomy - is the natural science of the universe.The subject of her study are cosmic phenomena, processes and objects.Thanks to science, we know what the stars, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, meteorites.Also astronomical knowledge gives the concept of space, the location of celestial bodies, their movements and their education systems.
Astronomy - is the science that explains the strange phenomena that are an integral part of our lives.
Origin and development of astronomy
earliest human representations of the universe were very primitive.They were based on religious beliefs.People thought that the earth - is the center of the universe, and that the sky attached to a solid stars.
In a further development of this science have identified a number of stages, each of which is called the astronomical revolution.
first such upheaval occurred at different times in different regions of the world.Approximate start of its implementation - 1500 BC.The cause of the first revolution was the development of mathematical knowledge, and the result - the appearance of spherical astronomy, astrometry and accurate calendars.The main achievement of this period - the emergence of the geocentric theory of the world, which became the result of ancient knowledge.
second revolution in astronomy took place during the period from the XVI to XVII century.It was caused by the rapid development of science and the emergence of new knowledge about nature.During this period, to explain astronomical phenomena and processes have been used the laws of physics.
main achievements of this stage of the development of astronomy - a study of the laws of planetary motion and gravity, the invention of the optical telescope, the discovery of new planets, asteroids, stellar systems, the emergence of the first cosmological hypothesis.
further development of space science has accelerated.It invented a new technique that helps in astronomical research.Will be able to study the chemical composition of celestial bodies, confirmed the unity of the entire space.
third astronomical revolution occurred in the 70-90 years of the twentieth century.It was due to the progress of engineering and technology.At this stage, there is all-wave, corpuscular and experimental astronomy.This means that now all of the objects of the cosmos can be viewed with the help of electromagnetic waves emitted by them, corpuscular radiation.
As we can see, astronomy - an ancient science, and in the course of a long development, it has acquired an extensive branch structure.The conceptual framework of classical astronomy, it consists of three subsections:
- theoretical astronomy - the science that studies the motion of celestial bodies in their orbits.It determines the position of the orbit of the planet's current location.
- astrometry base their teachings takes time and space.With the help of mathematical methods it defines visible position and motion of cosmic objects.Studied the changes of coordinates of celestial bodies.
- celestial mechanics considers the laws of motion of objects in space and their construction in the system.
In addition to these, there are still major sections:
- stellar astronomy;
new trends and directions in modern astronomy
Recently, due to the acceleration of the development of many sciences industry began to appear progressive, occupy quite specific research in the field of astronomy.
- gamma-ray astronomy explores space objects according to their radiation.
- X-ray astronomy is similar to the previous industry takes as a basis for studies x-rays emitted by the heavenly bodies.
Basic concepts in astronomy
What is the basic concepts of this science?In order that we may more deeply to study astronomy, you need to learn the basics.
Space - a collection of stars and interstellar space.In fact, it is the universe.
Planet - this particular celestial body that orbits the star.This title is given only heavyweight objects that are capable of acquiring a rounded shape under the influence of its own gravity.
Star - this is a massive spherical object consisting of gases inside the thermonuclear reaction.The closest known star, and for us is the sun.
Sputnik in astronomy - a celestial body rotating around an object that is larger and is held by gravity.Satellites are natural - such as the Moon, as well as artificially created by man, and launched into orbit for broadcasting the information you need.
galaxy - a gravitational bunch of stars, clusters of galaxies, dust, gas, and dark matter.All the objects move relative to its galaxy center.
nebula astronomy - is interstellar space, which has the characteristic radiation and stands out against the sky.Before the advent of powerful telescopic devices galaxy often confused with fog.
Declination in astronomy - a characteristic inherent to each celestial body.So I called one of the two coordinates, reflecting the angular distance from the equator of space.
modern terminology science of astronomy
innovative methods of study, which were discussed earlier, contributed to the emergence of new astronomical terms:
«exotic» objects - sources of optical, X-ray, radio and gamma radiation in space.
Quasar - in simple terms, is the star, with a strong radiation.Its capacity can be more than the entire galaxy.Such an object we see in a telescope even at a great distance.
neutron star - the last stage in the evolution of the celestial body.This space object is unimaginable density.For example, the substance of which is a neutron star, fit in a teaspoon would weigh 110 million tons.
Communication astronomy and other sciences
Astronomy - is the science that is closely associated with a variety of expertise.In his studies, she enjoys the achievements of many branches.
Problems spread on Earth and in space chemical elements and their compounds - that's the link between chemistry and astronomy.In addition, scientists are of great interest the study of chemical processes in the cosmic spaces.
Earth can be seen as one of the planets of the solar system - in this connection is expressed in astronomy and geography, and geophysics.Relief globe occurring climatic and seasonal changes in weather, magnetic storms, warming, ice ages - to study all these and many more events geographers use astronomical knowledge.
What was the basis for the origin of life?This is a common question for biology and astronomy.General works of these two sciences are aimed at solving the dilemma emergence of living organisms on Earth.
even more astronomy close relationship with the environment, which addresses the issue of the impact of cosmic processes in the Earth's biosphere.
methods of observation in astronomy
basis for the collection of information in astronomy is to observe.What sort of ways you can watch the processes and objects in space, and what tools are currently used for this purpose?
naked eye we can see on the horizon a few thousand stars, but sometimes it seems that we are seeing a million or a billion glowing bright spots.It is a spectacle in itself exciting, but with the help of magnifying devices can be seen more than interesting.
Even an ordinary pair of binoculars with eightfold increase in the possibility of giving a chance to see a myriad of celestial bodies, and ordinary stars that we see with the naked eye, become much brighter.The most interesting object for contemplation through binoculars - a moon.Even at low magnification you can see some of the craters.
Telescope also makes it possible to see not just a spot on the moon seas.Watching the stars with the help of this device, you can explore all the features of the Earth's satellite topography.Also open eyes of the observer invisible until that moment the rings of Saturn, the distant galaxies and nebulae.
contemplation of the night sky through a telescope - is not only a very exciting experience, but sometimes quite useful to science.Many astronomical discoveries were made are not research institutes, and just lovers.
value of astronomy for the individual and society
Astronomy - the science interesting and useful at the same time.Nowadays astronomical methods and tools are used to:
- weather forecasting;
- of the maritime and aviation navigation;
- establish the exact dates of historical events;
- cartographic representation of the planet, the construction of topographic maps.
Instead of an epilogue
Given all the above, the question of the usefulness and necessity of astronomy, no one can.This science helps to better understand all aspects of human existence.She gave us knowledge about the origin of life on Earth and has opened access to interesting information.
With the help of astronomical research, we can study the detail our planet and gradually move deeper into the universe, to learn more and more about the surrounding area.