detect bacteria, which in itself, without any help helps the body lose weight.
affects intestinal microflora in our organism on a variety of processes of higher nervous activity prior to pregnancy, but primarily it still affects digestion and metabolism.The bacteria help to break down what we ate, promote the absorption of some substances and interfere with the absorption of others, and this can not but affect the overall biochemistry and physiology.For example, recently it has been decoded influence gastrointestinal bacteria cholesterol.That is the role of bacteria can, and has been known, but the specific details of the process, which involves a bile acid receptor and a special intestinal cells, able to understand only now.
not surprising that among the scientists is very popular idea that with the help of bacteria can be cured patient metabolism, which are the result of obesity, diabetes and other unpleasant things.Indeed, research in this direction are under way: it is enough to mention the recent findings of scientists from Harvard University (USA), which managed to reduce body weight in laboratory animals via the gastro-intestinal bacteria.These experiments showed that, in principle, the idea works: obesity really can negate using microorganisms.
human small intestine section under an electron microscope (photo by David Scharf).
However, microflora - hundreds and thousands of strains of microorganisms.Which of them are responsible for weight loss?The question of paramount practical importance, but the answer to it is very difficult to give.If we want to treat patients with disorders of metabolism, we have to create a pure preparation of the necessary bacteria.Just relocate the bacteria from their wicked complete donor recipients, as it did at Harvard, is risky: a man, of course, lose weight, but apart from the bacteria to lose weight, get a whole bunch of others, who are accustomed to a stranger - the donor - the intestines.The intestinal microflora can be rightfully compared to the ecosystem and the ecosystem can be not very well, if it suddenly violated proportions: some species greatly increase, others lose anything, and so on. D. And all this, let us recall, necessarily affect the state of the organism as a whole.
Therefore, the opening of researchers from the Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium) is very important.Group Patrice Cani was able to find a specific bacterium, which causes the body to lose weight.She turned Akkermansia muciniphila.Not to say that scientists have previously not encountered it: its share in the digestive tract of mammals is equal to 3-5% of all local bacteria.Just before no one noticed a correlation between the number of A. muciniphila and obesity.
Gastrointestinal bacteria Rights (photo FEI Company).
As scientists write in the journal PNAS, in mice genetically predisposed to obesity, the number of A. muciniphila was 3300 times less.Furthermore, if the mice were fed a fatty meal, then, regardless of body weight of animal, the size of A. muciniphila have dropped 100 times.
authors have tried to restore the level of bacteria, or simply feeding it mice or giving animals oligofruktozny prebiotic that selectively stimulate the growth of bacteria.After that, the mice reduced body weight, and the proportion of fatty tissue bounces back, but continued to stuff the animal fat.Furthermore, it subsided mice adipose tissue inflammation and decreased resistance to insulin - and yet in adipocytes and inflammation, and insulin resistance have symptoms of type II diabetes.It fell as the level of endotoxin in the blood, weakened hyperglycemia.Simultaneously, increased levels of endocannabinoids to help control blood glucose and regulate the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and inflammation.
Among other advantages of A. muciniphila researchers note thickening of the intestinal mucosa.Obesity is usually accompanied by thinning of the mucosa of the intestinal epithelium, and it opens the pathogenic bacteria direct access to the cells of the epithelium - with all the consequences.So, in the presence of A. muciniphila mucosal barrier restored.That is, the bacterium generally helps the body to defend against a variety of disease-causing agents.The authors suggest that A. muciniphila sends some signals to intestinal cells, causing them to produce mucus shock and anti-microbial agents, but what kind of signals that scientists do not yet know.
Although fat diet greatly changed the composition of microflora, the subsequent "additive» A. muciniphila not led it to any radical restructuring.This suggests that weight loss can be achieved with a single strain is not bothered, roughly speaking, about the multiple and complex changes in the gastro-intestinal bacteria.Effort alone A. muciniphila would be sufficient.
way, with a number of other bacteria are not passed: the researchers, for example, obese mice fed avail Lactobacillus plantarum, which is found in abundance in probiotics.
So, now it's only in order to verify these results in humans.As a fly in the ointment is mandatory should be noted that the gastro-intestinal microflora person can practice inside quite different environmental communications, and it is not clear how they would react to an artificial increase in A. muciniphila, made even if for therapeutic purposes.
Articles Source: compulenta.computerra.ru