Converted temperature scale is named after the German physicist Gabriel Daniel XVII century Fahrenheit (1686-1736).Scientists have created a thermometer to which proposed a system with easier to measure the starting point.The shortest distance between the divisions of the device has been called "degrees Fahrenheit" in honor of the inventor.This scale is now used less frequently because of the transition to the 70-ies of XX century in the International System of Units (SI).Knowing the rules of the transfer of some units to help others better understand the meaning of the title of the novel by Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451," the inhabitants of the countries where the use of the metric system only.
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
German scholar G. Fahrenheit was born in Danzig, worked all his life in physics experiments, invented the tools used in metrology.In 1710 the scientist began to establish temperature scale and the measuring device heating and cooling bodies.One starting point in this work was the observation of the state of a mixture of ice and water, and the evaporation of water at reflux.
The temperature measuring devices used Fahrenheit tinted alcohol, and mercury.A disadvantage of the molten metal - it freezes at low temperatures.Gabriel Fahrenheit constantly perfecting his instruments, was elected to the Royal Society in England.At one time it was thought that by the German physicist thermometers irretrievably lost.There were only two copies, but was then found the third original instrument, invented by scientists.
temperature measuring devices
Various thermometers There are about 500 years old, the honor of creating these important instruments share the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages.The first samples were poorly chosen starting point for the scale, and by using the different divisions of the "price" thermometers are inconvenient in everyday life.
Gabriel Fahrenheit's merit lies in the fact that he invented the modern form of the instrument with the exact scale of measurement.The researcher suggested as the origin of transition of ice in the water, it took into account the point of boiling.Modern household thermometers in English-speaking countries like the little invented in the Middle Ages, is now often the mark is applied in the range of 0 to 132 ° F (degrees Fahrenheit).
most important parameters of the scale of the device, created Fahrenheit:
- point of 0 ° F - the temperature at which ice is;
- 32 ° F - the melting of ice and reverse transition - in the solid state;
- 212 degrees Fahrenheit - the boiling water.
Fahrenheit began to denote ° F after the invention of the thermometer.Swedish researcher Anders Celsius more accurate than his German counterpart, set the transition temperature of water in different aggregate states.The scale proposed by the Swedish scientist, was also a figure of 100, but it is consistent with the melting of the ice.During the boiling point of water of 0 degrees Celsius accepted.More than 250 years have passed since that moment when the scales turned: transformation temperature of ice in the water took over 0 ° C, and its boiling point are numbered 100.
main temperature scale in the metric system
Since 1960Most countries make the transition to the metric system, which uses two scales: Celsius and Kelvin.The most common in everyday life, technology and meteorology thermometers, which marked the division C, taking into account the conversion of the most common terrestrial matter - water.The Kelvin scale used in scientific research, the reference point is the temperature condition of the body in which it has a lower internal energy.The United States and Britain is not completely moved to the International System of Units (SI).In these and in other English-speaking countries use thermometers with different scale.
comparing temperatures in Fahrenheit temperature there is a range from 0 ° to 100 °.This same band on the Celsius scale interval corresponds to from -18 ° to 38 °.The Kelvin scale uses the concept of "absolute zero."This temperature, which is -273.2 ° C or ° F -459.7.You can translate and Fahrenheit 451, amounting to 233 ° C.
different temperature can be converted into each other, and these calculations demand in the US and the UK, where the standardization process in many areas of scientific research and production declined to use Fahrenheit, but it is still common in the home.If you want to translate the English-speaking inhabitants of Fahrenheit to Celsius, knowing that the temperature range of 1 ° C is equal to 1,8 ° F.
Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451»
Up until 1960 the Fahrenheit scale was the main English-speaking countries, was used in climatology, medicine, industry and everyday life.His novel, Ray Bradbury graduated in 1953, and in the epigraph pointed out that 451 degrees Fahrenheit - the ignition temperature of paper.The protagonist of the work in the distant future lives and works "fire", but does not fight with fire and burning books.
American classic sci-fi genre your novel dystopia devoted problems of moral choice, anti-totalitarian systems, personified in the XX century became fascism.After coming to power in Germany, Hitler initiated the destruction of libraries, the burning of books.In this way, the Führer wanted to eradicate all forms of dissent, imposing fellow citizens Nazi ideology.Converted temperature scale and the physical quantity - degree Fahrenheit - gradually fading, but the ideas raised in the novel, are still relevant.