Parliamentary republic: examples of countries.

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There are several basic forms of government in the modern world, which were formed historically.In this article, we will focus on a political system is a parliamentary republic.Examples of countries you can also find in this article.

What is it?

parliamentary republic (examples of this form of government can be found below) - a kind of government, in which all power belongs to a special legislative body - the parliament.In different countries it is called differently: Bundestag - in Germany, the Landtag - in Austria, the Sejm - Poland and so on. D.

form of government "parliamentary republic" is characterized primarily by the fact that it is the Parliament formsgovernment that is fully accountable to it, and also elects the president of the country (in most cases).As all this is happening in practice?After the parliamentary elections of People's Party winning a majority to form a coalition on the basis of which formed the new government.In addition, each of the parties receives a number of "portfolios" in accordance with its weight in the coalition.So, a few sentences, and can describe the operation of an entity such as a parliamentary republic.

Examples of countries - the "clean" parliamentary republic - include the following: this is Germany, Austria, Ireland, India (this is the most classic examples).Since 1976 their number was added Portugal, and since 1990 - African nation of Cape Verde.

Do not confuse concepts such as a parliamentary monarchy and a parliamentary republic, although they are very similar.The main similarity is that both places overriding authority acts as parliament and the president (or monarch) has only a representative function, that is, is only a symbol of the country.But the main difference between these forms of government is a parliamentary republic in which the president is elected by parliament every time, and in this position of the monarchy is hereditary.

Republic: presidential, parliamentary, mixed

Today, there are three types of republics.Depending on the size and breadth of powers of the head of state - the president - distinguished presidential and parliamentary republic.A classic example of a presidential republic always referred to the United States, the traditional examples of a parliamentary republic - Germany, Italy, Czech Republic and others.

also released a third type of republic - the so-called mixed.In such states, the two branches of power endowed with approximately the same power and control each other.The most striking examples of such countries - France, Romania.

main characteristics of a parliamentary republic

All states have a parliamentary republic similarities that should be listed:

  • executive power belongs entirely to the head of government, it could be the prime minister or chancellor;
  • president is elected for the position of not the people and the parliament (or special board);
  • Prime Minister appointed by the President, although the proposed nominee from among the leaders of the coalition formed by the majority;
  • all liability for the acts of the government bears his head;
  • all acts of the President shall be valid only if they are signed by the Prime Minister or the appropriate minister.

parliamentary republic: the list of countries

prevalence in the world this form of government is quite large.At present, there are about thirty-parliamentary republic, it is worth noting that a single figure in this regard is not.The fact that some countries are very difficult to attribute to a particular type.Examples of a parliamentary republic are listed below (they are distributed to parts of the world):

  • in Europe - Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Estonia, Ireland, Iceland, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Malta, Lithuania, LatviaSerbia, Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Finland, Slovenia and Slovakia;
  • in Asia - Turkey, Israel, Nepal, Singapore, India, Bangladesh, Iraq;
  • in Africa - Ethiopia;
  • America - Dominica;
  • Oceania - Vanuatu.

As we can see, the parliamentary republic, the list of which includes more than 30 countries, are predominant in the European region.Another feature that immediately catches the eye - the majority of these countries (especially when it comes to Europe) refers to succeed economically developed countries with high levels of democracy.

If we take into account the rating of the countries in terms of democracy (Organization Economist Intelligence Unit), we can see that of the 25 countries who have been granted the highest status of "full democracy", 21 countries - a parliamentary republic and the monarchy.Also, these countries are the leaders in the ranking of the IMF in terms of per capita GDP of the country.Thus, we can safely say that the most effective and successful form of government (at the time) it is a parliamentary republic.

list of countries above, can be represented in the form of the next card on which parliamentary republic marked in orange:

"pros" and "cons" of this form of government

The main advantages of the political system are the following:

  • parliamentary system ensures the unity of the legislative and executive branches of power;
  • all the initiatives of the government, as a rule, receive the full support of Parliament, which ensures stable operation of the entire system of government;
  • This control allows you to fully observe the principle of national representation in the government.

However, there is a parliamentary republic and disadvantages that are partially out of the merits of the political system.The first is the instability of coalition unions, which often leads to political crises (striking examples - Ukraine or Italy).Also, very often the coalition government have to give up useful for the country's actions in order to adhere to the ideological line of the coalition agreement.

Another drawback of a parliamentary republic - a danger of usurpation of power in the state government when the parliament is, in fact, turns into the usual "stamping machine" for the law.

Next, consider the features of the political system in the world's most popular parliamentary republic: Austria, Germany, India and Poland.

Federal Republic of Austria

Austrian parliament is called the "Landtag", and his deputies are elected for a term of four years.The central parliament - Federal Charges Austria - consists of two chambers: Natsionalrat (183 deputies) and the Bundesrat (62 deputies).In addition, your Diet has in each of the nine federal provinces of Austria.

In Austria, only about 700 registered parties, but at this point in time are represented in the Austrian parliament, only five of them.

Federal Republic of Germany

The German parliament also elected for four years.It consists of two chambers, the Bundestag, including 622 deputies, and the Bundesrat (69 members).Deputies of the Bundesrat - are representatives of all the 16 states of the country.Each of the federal states have from 3 to 6 representatives in the national parliament (depending on the size of a particular land).

German parliament elected to the office of the Federal Chancellor, who heads the executive branch and, in fact, is the main person in the state.Since 2005, the office in Germany takes Angela Merkel - the first woman in the post of federal chancellor in the history of the country.

Republic of Poland

Polish parliament is known as the Diet, it is also a bicameral.The Polish Parliament consists of two parts: it is in fact the Diet, which consists of 460 deputies, and the Senate, composed of 100 deputies.The Saeima is elected by proportional representation, according to the D'Hondt method.At the same time get a parliamentary seat in the Diet can only be those who have received at least 5% of the votes in a nationwide vote (with the exception of only representatives of ethnic minority parties).

Republic of India

India also is a parliamentary republic in which all power is vested in parliament and the government, which they formed.Indian parliament includes the People's Chamber and the Council of States - a body that represents the interests of individual states.

in the People's House (Lok Sabha) deputies elected by universal popular vote.Total (the maximum under the Constitution of India) the number of members of the House of the People - 552 people.The life of a convocation of the House is 5 years.However, the Lok Sabha may be dissolved by the President early, and in some cases the legislation provides for India and the extension of the Chamber for one year.Manages the speaker of the People's Chamber of India, who, after his election to the post is obliged to withdraw from the party.

Council of States (Rajya Sabha) formed through indirect elections and includes 245 deputies.Every two years, the composition of the Rajya Sabha is updated by a third.

In conclusion ...

Now you have an idea of ​​what a parliamentary republic.Examples of countries also shows us in this white paper: that Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, India, Singapore, the Czech Republic and other countries (total - about 30 states).In conclusion we can say that the political system of government has both its advantages and its drawbacks.However, today a parliamentary republic - this is the most efficient and effective form of government in the world.