Wintering bees in omshanike.

Strong bee colonies with enough honey for food may move outside winter temperatures down to -40 degrees.But in colder areas with a long (5-7 months), the winter period is a better alternative wintering bees in omshanike.

Why not bee hibernates

family is preparing for the winter all the active spring-summer season, except during the breeding season.Bee honey stocking, grow more generations working individuals.They do not hibernate like other insects, because they are not adapted to the accumulation of nutrients in your body.Separately, individuals can not tolerate the cold.Bees before hibernation handful of the club in the form of an ellipsoid.Inside it, they sit more freely and can move.Due to the movement in the center of the club generates heat to 25-30 gradusouv.In the outer layer bees prizhamayas to each other to form a dense shell thickness from 3 to 7 cm at about 15 degrees.Gradually they change places - the center fall within the shell, and vice versa.Being a relatively active motion and eating honey from a sealed framework club gathered for warmth, they save your life.Wintering bees in omshanike facilitate them this difficult period.


behavior winter fodder stocks are placed at the top of the bee hive, closer to the rear of the nest.Below against letka they grow brood.There they formed a club that has formed at zero temperature: in weak families - at 13 degrees, strong - at eight.The upper half of the club has always placed a large area sealed framework.

its warmth warm bee honeycomb, wax melts their special characters, and part of the cell is printed.They penetrate the water vapor from the air and liquefied honey bees that were fed.The club gradually moves through the honeycomb upwards toward the rear of the hive.If within enough honey, bees quietly move on mezhduramochnym spaces.

At the beginning of winter the desired temperature at the club supported by the warmth of the bees in the course of their life.If a cold snap club contracts.Bees take mezhduramochnye space and free cell.To keep the heat in the club, they begin to eat more food.At full

his eating bee forced to move to the neighboring frame.But this transition, they can only do at a sufficiently high temperature in the hive.If the outside temperature is less than zero, then the club is not capable of mobility.Bees show concern.The club can split in two, resulting in the death of one or both of its halves.

stock feed

Wintering bees in omshanike reduces the consumption of honey.United club specimens slow rhythm of life.Metabolic processes in their bodies are less intense.Bees need to feed in the club 20 times less than disconnected at same time.In the first month or two wintering they eat up to 700 grams of honey for 30 days.By the end of the period of consumption in a month is not less than 1.2 kg.When wintering bees in omshannike passed seamlessly, and in the spring brood in the hive appears, the volume of food is doubled.

Leave box, where honey is not less than 2 kg and there are immune cells, which will be placed the bee wintering club.He will remain tight, and the bees easier to keep the temperature at a lower feed intake.In addition to honey (carbohydrates, trace elements) to each family lay in store for at least 2 frames with pollen (protein food).It is necessary for feeding the brood in spring.Cells with bee bread should be preserved - filled with honey, wax sealed lid, otherwise hlebina moldy and spoiled.

Preparation of feed combs

for safe wintering carefully treat forage harvesting combs.Beekeeping for beginners is sometimes quite difficult task, so took everything very seriously.Cells are harvested in the first half of the season, and the order setting the framework for the feed depends on the system (structure) of the hive.Outset that the cell is not new and the old, and the "b / y" - light brown.

The double-hulled before nectar flow cell with a printed brood placed in the center of the 2nd Corps.Because of such multiple-cell put in the center of the top.Previous framework is not pumped out - there is food for the winter.The sunbeds before the main nectar flow cell with a printed and open brood placed next to the center, pushing the blonde and black to the edge of the nest.The hive of the extension at the center of the two extensions put 4-6 nesting frames and put on the edges poluramki.Bees work out those first cell in the center.Once the nest will be sealed half of their collected from the hive, but honey is not pumped out - a winter feed.

For information: sotoramka 43.5 x 30 cm accommodates 4 kg of honey, 43.5 x 23 cm - 3 kg, provided the content of cells from both sides.

correct medical

Handbook "Beekeeping for Beginners" emphasizes that not all honey is suitable for winter food.To avoid honeydew toxicity for wintering bee colonies should be left without a frame with honey honeydew collected in the first half of the honey harvest.If the family winters in honeydew honey, that some of its members do not live up to the spring - they begin diarrhea.Have lived muddy feces slot that threatens dangerous parasitic disease - nosema.

not suitable for wintering quickly crystallized honey harvested from the willow, sunflower, sainfoin, sow-thistle, cruciferous plants (rapeseed).It is impossible to thin out.Wintering with the honey bees get restless thirst.Family weakens or dies of hunger in the reserve zakristalizovannogo honey.

When harvesting forage use cell light brown, which displayed several generations.They are less thermally conductive than light, better retain heat in the nest, in which the uterus is more likely to lay eggs in the spring.In the old black cells with the remaining embryos are fresh honey honey crystals quickly hardens.Wintering is dysfunctional, because the bees need liquid honey.Light cell in which there was no bee broods, cold, late queen begins to lay their eggs and brood development in their spring delayed.

feed storage

stock feed in sealed cells stored in bins with tight lid, in breeding enclosures in the supers.The storage space should be dry and cool, removed from the mice.Before setting up the comb carefully cleaned bars frames from contamination: diarrhea stains, wax build-up, propolis.

Omshanik bees

place chosen for the construction of dry area (groundwater depth at least 1 m from the floor), on a small slope (for drainage of melt and rain water), protection from winds.Omshanik made inaccessible to mice busting hive impermeable for light and noises that disturb the bees.

Depending on the terrain, buildings can be ground, underground and semi-underground.The most common - underground, buried to the height of the walls in the ground.In winter, they will smooth the temperature is maintained in the spring reduced, which is important for the successful completion of the winter.Omshanika brick walls or rubble, wood fungus infestation quickly.

Lack ground Zimovniki walls too cool in winter, and the spring sun overheat when the bee is still too early to stop the winter.The ground room thermostat is required for omshanika - it will maintain the set temperature.

The semi-underground wall to half the height bury in the ground.Such omshaniki usually build on a hillside.

Omshanik bees consists of walls, floors, the ceiling, the roof ventilation.Inside make racks for hives.The door opens inward, it felt insulated, upholster the street roofing iron.

Dimensions zimovnika determine the type and number of hives.Height from floor to ceiling - 2.5-3 m. Hive put on racks or one above the other.Single-walled covers 0.6 sq.m square.Double-walled, and the hive-lounger - 0.7-0.9 sq.m. The distance from the wall to the hives - 10 cm between rows - 90 cm.

Ventilation and temperature omshanike

Humidity and temperature wintering bees must be maintained at a constant level.Permissible variation of the last - from -2 to +4 degrees, but the optimum - from 0 to 2.When cold the bees eat a larger volume of food, and their intestines overflowed feces, diarrhea begins.Excessive heat causes them great concern.

be pleasant relative humidity of 75-85%.Higher cause soggy omshanika and hives, excessive - liquefaction of honey, making it sour.When eating stale honey bees opens diarrhea, they are weakening and dying.Low humidity is not sufficient to liquefy the honey crystallizes, the bees die of thirst and hunger.

Need a forced-air ventilation to control humidity and temperature omshanike.Fresh air enters through pipes under the floor, warm steam pipe is pulled from the ceiling, and outputting the roof.Adjust the inflow-exhaust valves is performed.In the opening section of the family must be 8 square From this data and calculate the sectional area of ​​the tubes.If necessary, they arrange a few.

Moving to "winter quarters"

summer omshanik well dry, the floor is filled with dry sand, walls, ceilings whitewashed.Do not rush to transfer the hives.In the fall of warm days happen to detour the bees.When the bees enter the winter?Usually in the middle of November in the northern and central regions, in early December in the south.

permissible wintering bees in the barn if insulate the walls, lined with mats of reeds the wall of the hives, to ensure silence and darkness.Construction of the omshanika - an expensive and labor-intensive.Wintering bees in the barn is more reliable than in open space with the wind and snow.Bee is not afraid of cold and hunger, dampness and drafts, and the beekeeper - the thieves, if omshanik away from home.Particularly successful wintering in a shed apiary other than wintering bees in omshanike.