agriculture are a special type of activity aimed at the cultivation, processing and manufacturing, as well as the provision of related services.Its main industries are livestock and crop production.On how the development will agriculture as a branch of production of a country depends largely on the welfare of its people.
Features crop in Russia
land in our country very much and, it would seem, all the prerequisites for the successful development of this area of agriculture there.Unfortunately, Russia is geographically so that the climatic conditions and various natural factors possibilities in this regard very seriously limit.Crop as a branch of agriculture in our country is quite promising direction, but only if the use of new technologies and respect for nature.
Only 35% of Russian land is located in a temperate climate, good suitable for the cultivation of crops such as rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat and so on. D. Huge same area of the Arctic Circle for the crop will not fit.In addition, large areas in our country takes the taiga, where cultivation of the land - a process which is also associated with a lot of difficulties.
Crop as a branch of agriculture: the main directions
At present, the main areas of agriculture in Russia include:
- Grain economy.This direction is essential to the population of any country of the world, including our country.Bread can be considered as the staple food of man.The most valuable feed for farm animals are also produced from crops.
- Grassland.So-called system of various activities aimed at production, harvesting and processing of animal feeds.In this case, the land is used for growing crops in the main meadow, roots, tubers, melons and so on. N.
- cultivation of industrial crops.These include cotton, flax, sunflower, sugar beet, tobacco and so on. D.
- Vegetable and potato.
- viticulture and horticulture.
Geography crop in Russia
So, the main industry specialization of agriculture in our country - breeding and agriculture.Geographically, Russia is located in several climatic zones.In crop production, and in particular the diversity of compositions bred crops This cause affects first and foremost.
For wheat, demanding thermal regime prefers loamy soils nutritious enough drought-resistant crops, grown mainly in the steppe and forest steppe zones.The area of growing less fastidious rye has wider borders.Barley also spread to almost all the agricultural area of the country - from cold northern regions to the arid south.
Different types of industrial crops are also common in several areas.Sunflower, for example, very well grow in arid regions.The only thing - to get good harvests this culture should be planted only on a fairly fertile soils.Grow sunflowers at most in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the country.Sugar beets, on the contrary, is very demanding on the humidity conditions.Therefore, it has spread mainly only in the central and western regions of the steppe zone.
Vegetable includes a large number of crops that are attributable to the different biological species.Therefore, it is well developed in almost all agricultural Russia.The most common crops are open agriculture cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin, onions, beets and carrots.They are grown on a commercial scale is most often in places where there is access to the water - on the shores of lakes, rivers and reservoirs.The largest centers of Horticulture formed in the lower reaches of the Volga and the Don and the North Caucasus.
Gardening - also an important area in such areas as agriculture.Agriculture, associated with the cultivation of fruit and berry crops, also got a huge spread in Russia, especially in the European part (the Volga region, Krasnodar Territory).The greatest variety of fruit crops observed in the North Caucasus.A lot of gardens are bred in Bashkiria and in the Altai.
The industry also for our country is promising.Suffice it to recall that before the crisis of the last century it has been one of the leading.Characteristics of the agricultural sector in this case would be incomplete without a brief excursion into history.In the Soviet Union livestock, particularly cattle, was developed very well.However, the economic crisis has had on subsequent years this trend more than a negative impact.Only from 1991 to 2005, the number of cattle has decreased from 54.7 to 21.4 million tonnes.According to the results of the same 2005 Livestock in this country it was considered unprofitable.Therefore, there was an increase of imports of this product.
However, at present agriculture as the economic sector (including livestock) in our country can be considered more or less profitable.To some extent this is due to the development of private farms.
So what are the main directions presented in this case agriculture?Branches in animal agriculture following:
- Cattle.Breeding cattle, along with the cultivation of grain is one of the main directions with / agricultural production.
- Pig.It is the second most important branch.Meaning it is also hard to overestimate.This area is classified into meat, polusalnoe and bacon.
- sheep and goat husbandry.The most widely used data obtained in the direction of the steppe zones and in mountainous areas.
- Equine.The industry aims to ensure that the economy purebred breeding animals, sports and productive.
- Camel.This trend has been the development of the widest in the arid and semiarid regions of Russia.Also, these animals get very high-quality wool and milk.
- Reindeer.This industry is a specialization of areas located in the tundra (Magadan, Arkhangelsk regions, and so on. D.).
- Poultry.Another important branch of animal husbandry.
- farming.The main objective of this area is to ensure the economy of small fur-bearing animal skins.
- Beekeeping.The industry is responsible for the production of a number of valuable products - honey, beeswax, royal jelly, bee venom, and so on. D.
Industries and agriculture are linked to each other directly.As for this, of course, including livestock.Without a well-developed pigs and cattle, for example, is unlikely to be particularly profitable food industry.If the state will not pay attention to such industries as farming and sheep breeding, the population of Russia will remain without proper warm clothes.
Geography of livestock in Russia
Placing and specialization of this area are mainly determined by the availability of food resources for a particular group of animals.That is, as a branch of livestock farming, though less than the crop, the degree, but also is dependent on natural and climatic factors.
intensive dairy farming in our country at the most developed in the European part - in the upper reaches of the Volga and the Dnieper.This is mainly Moscow and Yaroslavl regions.The same trend is typical for the south of the St. Petersburg area.Is breeding cattle and in other regions of the European part of the country, as well as in the southern regions of Siberia, in the Urals.However, in this case we are talking mostly about meat and dairy cattle.Distributed by it and to the north - in most parts of Siberia, but in these areas it is at most extensive.In the polar regions is widely developed herding.Most cattle are bred in the Urals, Volga and Central regions and the North Caucasus.
very widespread cultivation of small cattle in our country has received in the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Urals and East Siberia.Not bad ovchinnoshubnoe developed production and in the central regions of European Russia.Pig farming involved almost the entire country.To a lesser extent, this is the direction of development in the Far East.
What influences the development of agriculture
addition to climatic and weather conditions for the development of livestock and crop production in any state can be influenced by the following factors:
- degree of support from the state.More money will be invested in new technology, the more profitable is agriculture.Branches agriculture any direction are very dependent on the amount of subsidies.These funds are mainly on the development of innovative industries, purchase of equipment, development of new technologies.
- Taking measures to restore depleted soils in areas of intensive crop production.To enable countries to compete with other countries in the global market of agricultural products on its territory should be as much fertile land.
- Another very important factor of economic development of the specific country in a market is the existence of a healthy competitive environment.The main branches of agriculture in this respect are not the exception.
- status of science and technology.The more innovations being implemented, the profitability of animal and crop production.Scientific progress - this is one of the main factors reducing the cost of food.
Problems of nature
All branches of agriculture in Russia, in addition to the above factors, are directly dependent on environmental conditions.Unfortunately, in our country, predatory attitude to the riches of nature and mismanagement led to a significant deterioration of the situation in this regard.
in the steppe and forest steppe zones of ecological balance severely disrupted mainly due to wind and water erosion.Meanwhile, having experience in creating environmentally sustainable landscape was founded in the late 19th century by Dokuchaev in the Voronezh region, in the natural stone steppe.Now here is the Agricultural Research Institute.This experience should definitely use today.
Violation of ecological balance in the deciduous forest, and lesotaezhnoy areas usually associated with the draining of swamps and uncontrolled deforestation.
As can be solved environmental problems in modern Russia
Fortunately, the current situation in our country in this plan begins to change dramatically.The most important task of the newly established science - environmental economics - is not only the assessment of the state of the environment in light of the possibility of its use, but also forecasting of ecological systems, trying to foresee the future and the ability to manage today.Of course, such an approach to the main branch of agriculture will have more than a beneficial effect.
main methods of greening the contemporary land use at the moment are the preservation of biological organisms and the creation of natural organic fertilizers based on fungi, bacteria and algae.Science that deals with the biology of humus - is tomorrow agriculture.
Recent developments in this area are being implemented in all sectors of agriculture in Russia today.For example, in the Krasnodar region used bezgerbitsidnye technology of rice and corn.Some farms of the Omsk region the rejection of the use of pesticides and the use of new technologies of farming led to a significant increase in productivity.
Among the new techniques include, for example:
- Drip irrigation, to adopt not only the large farms, but many owners of gardens.
- moldboard plowing.
- natural biological seasonal turnover cultures.
to plans awaiting realization in the near future, can be attributed to the introduction of an integrated and comprehensive monitoring of the environment.That is observing its response to human economic activity and take appropriate action in advance.Of course, this will have a positive impact on agriculture.The sectors of agriculture - livestock and crop - will be profitable and viable.
Reviving livestock and crop production in Russia, of course, you should pay attention to the experience of those countries where the data industry developed very well.An example often cited Germany.At present, the development of agriculture in this country pays a lot of attention.On the profitability of all its structures to a large extent influenced by the most impeccable and well thought-out organization and management and use of natural resources.
In the central regions of Germany and the south of the country are engaged in agricultural production mainly owners of small farms.This situation becomes a cause of healthy competition, introduction of new powerful incentive techniques.Branches German Agriculture - livestock and crop production - bring the country huge profits.
for us in the country to the implementation of most projects, and development of new technologies in animal husbandry and agriculture will largely depend on the perfection of the legislative base in the near future.Prudent management of the economy and the conservation of natural resources should be a priority of the state.Perhaps in the future the structure of the agricultural sector will remind Russian German.However, at present the major share of food in our country produce quite large with a / s organization.