Many enterprises in the implementation activities are faced with financial problems.To solve them, you need to carry out actions on the financial diagnosis and subsequent financial recovery.In setting "financial diagnosis of" easiest to use by various financial ratios and indicators.As a rule, the analysis is based on the study of financial ratios related to four groups: liquidity ratios, financial soundness and profitability levels and indicators of business activity.Consider more closely coefficients characterizing the liquidity of the company.
The first and most common is the figure that has a very characteristic name - coefficient of overall liquidity.With it, there is a comparison of current assets held by the company under study, and short-term debt, which were formed in the course of implementation.It is evident that current assets should be fully cover these debts - a requirement of liquidity.On the other hand, there is a requirement of efficiency - it is believed that more than two-fold excess of current assets over liabilities with the shortest term indicates inefficient use of these assets.
However, the normal value of the indicator for a particular company may be different from the usual.To define it is necessary to proceed from the assumption that the current assets after the financial commitments should be enough for the continuation of activities.In other words, the normal current assets should equal the sum of short-term liabilities and standard stocks.It is interesting that this ratio, having its limits, is a stop for another indicator, which is called interim liquidity ratio.By
ratio of current assets to fixed-term liabilities also determined the quick (en) liquidity.However, in this case from the working capital reserve to exclude the least liquid ones, which are traditionally recognized as stocks.It is possible to formulate such a way that the intermediate liquidity ratio shows to what extent the company will be able to return to the most urgent debts in collecting the entire amount of the receivable.The lower limit of the indicator is also set at the level of the unit.
The above calculation is simple, but not quite accurate.The fact that some stocks may be more liquid than individual or short-term investments, for example, questionable "accounts receivable."Intermediate liquidity ratio more accurately determined if the calculation to include the cost of products sold on a prepaid basis, and exclude not only illiquid investments, and receivables in the part of that, the repayment of which is in doubt.
solvency of the company, ie its ability to immediately settle the most urgent obligations described eponymous factor.For its calculation, the numerator is left only the most liquid assets.Obviously, it will be cash and property equal to them.It should be borne in mind that in any case can not be included in the calculation of non-liquid investments, as this would distort the real state of affairs.Russian organizations for the most part have the figure at no more than 0.1.This level in the western economy is clearly inadmissible, since there is taken from the bottom limit of 0.2 to 0.25 above.
In some cases, the company can count measure of liquidity in the fund-raising.He describes what part of the most urgent obligations can be repaid if they implemented all the stocks of the enterprise.
for accurate analysis of the need to not only be calculated, for example, the ratio of intermediate liquidity, but also all the others.And also very useful to study the dynamics of liquidity ratios to identify trends.