rapid development of industry in China began in 1978.That's when the government began to actively implement liberal economic reforms.First of all, they are concerned to redirect the main branches of the export, attraction of foreign investments and the creation of economic zones with a favorable tax and regulatory climate.As a result, nowadays the country is one of the world leaders in the production of almost all product groups.
A brief history of industrial development in China
As surprising as it may sound, but until the mid-twentieth century, China was a semi-feudal state system with undeveloped economy and production.In terms of industrialization, he lagged behind the developed countries of the world for more than a hundred years, and acted only as a commodity and agricultural appendage.Things began to change after 1949, when China was proclaimed.Following a comparatively short period of industrialization and agriculture began to flourish in China.An eloquent proof of this include the fact that only fifty years in the country appeared about 370 thousand new enterprises.Volume production for the period increased by 39 times.Today, the country is at the leading position in the world in the number of factories.Her whole industry at the same time represented 360 different industries.Due to the extremely high rates of development, the government sometimes even forced to restrain him.This is done to prevent another crisis and shocks in the world economy.The largest centers of industry in China is concentrated mainly in the coastal eastern provinces.These include Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong and other.
Gas and oil
country boasts a fairly rich subsoil.Despite this, the processing industry in China developed much better than mining.Whatever it was, the size of natural gas reserves are found in the southern and eastern regions of the country, researchers estimate that more than 4 thousand billion tons.As of today, are explored less than 4% of them.As for oil, it is necessary to it one-fifth of the production of fuel and energy resources of China.Stocks of black gold, which provided 16% of export earnings, there are about 64 billion tons.Currently in the country there are 32 enterprises specializing in the production of oil.The largest local processing plants are located in its provinces Tsaidam Yuymen, Dagan and Shandong.
Back in pre-revolutionary times China's light industry has played a leading role in the structure of its economy.It is important for the development of the country this area remains today.Indeed, the food and textile industry accounts for almost 21% of all industrial products produced in the state.Leading companies that produce it, are scattered across the country.The food industry is most developed in the southwest of China.In the north-western regions are mainly companies that specialize in animal husbandry and processing of cotton.Northeastern companies are mainly engaged in paper, Dairy and sugar industry focus such as light industry of China.In general, in the state, there are more than 23 thousand textile companies, which manufacture and processing of raw materials are characterized by a clear orientation, as well as about 65 thousand enterprises in the food industry.Do not forget with all this, and for the manufacture of paper.Although it is not such a large scale as the previous two industries, but still plays a very important role in the development of the country.
Similarly, other sectors of the economy quite rapidly developing and heavy industry in China.For companies specializing in it after a long rise in the past few years has been characterized by a reduction in production volumes.At the same time, according to many analysts the world, it has nothing to do with product quality and pricing.The fact that the country now has excess capacity that amid slowing consumption not only in the country but also around the world, you just need to cut.The most cost-effective, as the practice shows that as of today in this sector are small enterprises.Experts say that this can not last long, so in the near future the market will necessarily be redistributed, and then about 5% of the companies in this industry will go bankrupt or be absorbed by large companies.
Until the middle of last century, it played no role in the development of China's economy.The country's industry is practically not manufactured machinery with the component parts, airplanes, tractors, cars and so on.In fact, engineering, after the 1949 revolution in China was set up in a new way.Only during the first Five-Year Plan in the country it was built more than 60 plants (the third part of which was built thanks to the active support from the Soviet Union).As a result, now the situation has changed dramatically.Currently, the industry produces more than 53 thousand names of products and fully satisfies domestic needs of the state.For the largest engineering centers are Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai and Tianjin.
As noted above, the country is very rich in natural resources.Due to this development is fairly and steel industry in China.Almost every province or autonomous region where the enterprises of ferrous metallurgy, the total number exceeds the mark of 1.5 thousand.The state produces more than a thousand varieties of steel, including alloys for the aviation industry, characterized by high heat resistance, and high grade with predetermined characteristics.The main drawback, which is typical for most companies in this sector, has become a relatively low technical level of production and poor equipping them with modern technology.Moreover, about 70% of such enterprises in general is not equipped with sewage treatment plants.As for the non-ferrous metallurgy, the conditions for its development can safely be called favorable, because the bowels of the earth, there are rich deposits of copper, manganese, zinc, silver, gold, lead and many other ores.At the same time it should be noted that only a few decades ago, actively developed production only some of them, and she was carried to develop chaotically, without observance of elementary safety rules.
an important role in the national economy plays China's auto industry.The effectiveness of the policy pursued by the government in this area is very high.First of all, it is expressed by the fact that the State has successfully developed cooperation with many leading car companies.As of today Celestial alone provides almost all of the domestic demand for vehicles.At the same time imports do not exceed the mark of 10%.This situation is largely due to the fact that the government does not make the task of motorization of the population (own machine has only 1% of the population).A number of taxes, fees and restrictions led to the fact that the car is a luxury.
Not in last place in terms of development is the construction industry of China.This is not surprising, because in the country there are huge reserves of gypsum, graphite, quartz, high quality clay, asbestos, limestone and mica.The most massive of all kinds of building materials is the production of cement, which is established in the north-eastern region of the country.Most of the companies for the production of ceramic tiles is concentrated in Boshan, Jiangxi Province, and Shenyang, Urumqi, and brick factories - not far from Beijing.The town is famous for its powerful Sichuan asbestos companies.
Despite the large reserves of gas, coal and phosphates, in China for a long time did not pay attention to many industries.Some of them simply re-created after the revolution.It was no exception and the chemical industry in China.In the first half of the fifties of the last century, there were 33 major companies specializing in this area.At the same time in such a short time, the range of products has increased tenfold, to a mark of 900 titles.Major chemical companies are located in Nanjing, Shanghai, Harbin, Shenyang and Jilin.
constant increase in the number of population leads to an increase in food consumption.In this regard, the Government of China calls a priority to ensure the further active development of industries such as food processing and agriculture in China.The country has a policy of all-round support of the peasantry in order to improve their standard of living and increase the yield of crops.In particular, farmers are exempted from agricultural taxes, taxes on products, slaughter and other payments.In addition, citizens who are employed in this sector, provided all kinds of subsidies, grants, favorable loans and even gratuitous aid.Almost all the provinces at the legislative level, the state guarantees the purchase of crops from farmers.Specific words deserves the contribution of local scientists, breeders, who managed to bring a number of crops yields, several times higher than that of the traditional varieties.
Conclusion This article briefly describes only the basic industries of China.Without a doubt, the Celestial Empire has achieved great success in other areas of economic activity.These include the development of information and biological technology, pharmaceuticals, waste production, communications, improvement of computer technology, the development of new sources of energy, reducing environmental pollution and many other areas.