Man has always felt the need for something.In primitive society needs were primitive character, but with the development of social relations are becoming more sophisticated and differentiated.In this article, we will focus on what is the need of the economy.It is this category that is the basis of many different laws and theories.What classification of economic needs and resources exist today?
Demand - a ... (in the economy)
First, you need to understand the essence of this concept.So, what is the difference between human needs?
Economics as an independent science arose in the 18th century, after the curious work of Adam Smith called "The Wealth of Nations."Adam Smith, in fact, was the first who tried to consider economic phenomena and processes in the scientific world.Already in this book, the author touched on one of the most important research subjects of economics - basic needs.
Economy - this is the science that aims to answer a number of troubling issues.What are the basic human needs?Limitless they?And how can they be met?But first you need to find an answer to a simple question: "The demand in the economy - what is this?"
This term may be interpreted in a narrow and in a broad sense.
In a broad understanding of the needs of the economy - it is the desire of the individual (or group of people) get a particular benefit that has a specific value for it.And the needs can be personal or public.In the past just focuses a science like economics.
society needs arise in the course of its development or the development of its individual formations.The nature of their largely determined by the specific terms of economic relations.
If the term is interpreted in a narrow sense, it can be defined as a need - it is (in the economy), the internal motive, stimulates the functioning of social production.In addition, under the economic needs can be understood as a special category, which reflects the whole complex of relations between individual members of society in the process of production and consumption of public goods.
Economy: classification requirements
In economics there are several classifications of needs.
possible, implementing release:
- real needs;
- solvent needs;
- absolute need.
Depending on the subject, the needs may be:
- individual (personal);
- needs of specific groups (companies);
- government needs and so on. D.
Depending on the object are the following kinds of needs in the economy:
- Physiological (the need for food, water) and social (needs in education, communication, and so on. D.).
- material and spiritual.
- Basic (the primary) and secondary.
In addition, all these kinds of needs in the economy are heavily dependent on historical, cultural, geographic, religious and other features.
pyramid needs of the individual
Maslow pyramid of needs - known work of American psychologist and sociologist Abraham Maslow.The idea to put all human needs in a hierarchical pyramid Maslow came up with in 1943.It is this idea described in detail in his book "Motivation and Personality".
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is of the form of the pyramid consisting of five levels:
- Physiological needs (lower level) - it's thirst, hunger, sexual desire and the need for sleep.
- needs in a comfortable and safe existence.
- social needs (education, love and respect).
- need for self-esteem and recognition.
- needs a higher level - self-identity and self-actualization.
essence of the hierarchical pyramid of Maslow is: meeting the needs of the highest rank possible without preliminary meet the needs of the lower level.In simple terms: a hungry man will not be interested to gain the respect of others.
Act of growth economic needs
It should be noted that the resources and needs of the economy are very closely related.However, the needs of the individual and society are endless, while economic resources are always limited in their volumes.It is this contradiction, and is designed to solve the economic science.
essence of the law needs grow thesis is as follows: after the meet the needs of lower rank becoming urgent needs of the next, higher level.
In global terms, the operation of this law is determined by the overall scientific and technical progress, the improvement of public relations, development of culture and other, no less important factors.
economic benefits - it ...
What is the benefit?In a broad sense, this is what can satisfy the human or social needs.The benefits can be created as a natural (natural) way, and anthropogenic (ie, by direct human intervention).
The natural benefits include water, air, the sun's energy.The benefits that have been created by man based on natural ingredients, just called economic.
main feature of any good quality should be such as usefulness.In today's cash benefit of any relationship usually becomes a commodity.
classification of economic benefits
A variety of social needs is forcing humanity to produce a wide range of economic benefits.In economics, they are classified according to several criteria.
On a functional criterion distinguishes the following benefits:
- consumer goods (clothing, food);
- means of further production (machines, various equipment).
On the criterion of priority are:
- good basic necessities;
- secondary benefit (luxury or art).
on temporary release benefit criteria;
- prolonged use.
In addition, the economic benefits can be personal, collective, public, or government.In economics also produce interchangeable and complementary benefits.An example of the first group may be two cars of different brands (eg, "Peugeot" and "Renault").Complementary benefits - those benefits that are not able to meet the needs alone.For example, this may be the vehicle and fuel thereto.
Economic resources - all the resources that are used to produce goods or services.In fact, these are the same goods that are used to produce other economic benefits.In the economic literature it can also be found such a thing as a productive factor.
thinkers of ancient Greece was considered the main economic resource of human labor.But the Physiocrats called key productive resource land economy.
19th century English economist Alfred Marshall isolated a new type of economic resources - entrepreneurial talent.In the XXI century in the first place there is an economic resource, the information (knowledge).
property of all without exception of economic resources is their interweaving, interoperability and portability.
Classification of economic resources
Today economists are five basic types of economic resources.It:
- Earth (or all natural resource potential).
- labor (labor force).
- Capital (financial resources).
- Entrepreneurial abilities and talents.
- Knowledge (information).
In conclusion ...
Thus, the need for the economy - it is a special category that reflects a person's attitude to the economic conditions of his life and manifests itself in the form of sustainable desire to take over specific goods or resources.
In modern economics, there are several classifications of the needs and benefits.Resources and needs of the economy can be both personal and public.However, the main law that brings us to the science of economics, is that human needs are endless.And satisfy one of them, a man immediately realizes that it becomes urgent needs of others, a higher hierarchical level.