Chellentani and manikotti, kazerechche and pipa Rigat, mafaldine and Stellini, soba and udon, and sayfun bifun, chuzma and nuasyr - for someone who refers to pasta "quietly" is simply a collection of foreign words.For the true fan is a story about what are varieties of pasta in different countries.
Today, in contrast to earlier times, on the shelves of supermarkets and presents a variety of types of pasta.Photos presented below, shows only a small number of all shapes, variety and type of pasta.
Where and when were the pasta?
exact date when people were in the diet pasta, not be able to name any historian cooking.Segodnyasuschestvuyut hypothesis of the primacy of the Etruscans, the Chinese and the Arabs on the issue of the invention of pasta.
carefully studying the bas-reliefs of Etruscan necropolis belonging to the IV century BC.e., historians have come to the conclusion that they depict utensils, which were made by the pasta.
According to another theory, the modern history of pasta starts from the XIII century, when Venice came back from China by Marco Polo.However, even in the middle of the XII century, most of the exports of Sicily is one of the types of pasta (pasta secca).That is, even for half a century until the return of the great Chinese traveler Italians have produced different kinds of pasta.
Other historians argue that the priority in the discovery of pasta, or rather their species such as noodles, belongs to China, where it was prepared before the onset of AD.Although there is no exact information about when and where there were pasta, people living in different countries and belonging to different cultures and nationalities, happy to use them.
particularly pasta in the kitchen many people have a variety of types of pasta and dishes in which they are used in one form or another.
For Europeans, the most loved and familiar kinds of pasta are made from wheat flour.They may be of very different widths, lengths and shapes.
Most people in Asia, including the Chinese, prefer pasta made from rice flour.Basically it is these types of pasta, rice noodles both different lengths and widths, a translucent or white.
In Japan, Kazakhstan, Central Asia and some provinces in China is very popular tagliatelle, which extend in a special way.In Asia, it is called "chuzma" and is used for cooking Laghman.
Japan gladly prepared from a variety of diverse kinds of flour pasta.So, very popular soba noodles, made from a mixture of buckwheat and rice flour and used in the preparation of many dishes.From starch legumes prepare a special kind of noodle - sayfun.
The Arab countries are popular types of pasta as nuasyr and Rasht.
For a long time, chefs from around the world have perfected the art of making pasta and creating new recipes.Let's look at what are the pasta.
pasta Pasta can be categorized according to different characteristics and, above all, depending on the raw materials used in the manufacturing process.Macaroni in most cases are made from wheat flour, but may be made from rice, rye, and buckwheat flour, and corn starch.
According to Russian standards, pasta made from wheat flour, depending on the varieties of wheat fall into the following groups: A, B, C. In addition, the type of flour is the basis for allocation of three varieties of pasta - Higher,first and second.
The group A is accepted to pasta made from flour, first and second grades of durum wheat.The raw material for pasta meal of group B is higher and first grades of vitreous wheat.For pasta group used in baking flour senior and first grade.
In Russia, according to the established state standards, all pasta, depending on their shape, are divided into several types:
In each of these types There are several types.Shaped articles can be made in all shapes and sizes.
the tubular pasta are just pasta, feathers and horns.Depending on the diameter, they are divided into:
- «straw" - up to 4 mm;
- special - diameter from 4 mm to 5.5 mm;
- ordinary - with a diameter of 5.6 mm to 7 mm;
- Amateur - more than 7 mm in diameter.
divided into threadlike pasta noodles, cobweb with a diameter less than 0.8 mm;thin - diameter of not more than 1.2 mm;common - a diameter less than 1.5 mm;amateur - a diameter of 3 mm.
K band-shaped macaroni noodles is manufactured in various forms and names.It can be straight and wavy edges, ribbed and smooth.The thickness of the noodles may not exceed 2 mm, and the width of any permitted, but not less than 3 mm.
According to the Russian guests, all pasta are divided into two main groups: short length of 1.5 to 15 cm, and length - from 15 to 50 cm. According to state standards, there are only long pasta, noodles and vermicelliIt can be both long and short.Shaped products, as well as horns and feathers produced only short.
Italian pasta classification
Italy uses a slightly different classification of pasta than is customary in Russia.A total of Italian cooking, there are about three hundred kinds of pasta, but their exact number is unlikely someone will be able to call.
In Italy pasta is divided primarily on the raw and dry.Dried pasta is stored for a long time and are sold in retail stores.In contrast, uncooked pasta once used for the preparation of a dish.
All Italian pasta conditionally divided into the following subgroups:
- small soup pasta;
- intended for baking;
- filled (stuffed) Pasta.
to the long pasta tubes include diameter of 1.2 to 2 mm, such as Cappellini, noodles, spaghetti and bucatini spagettini.
flat pasta in the form of tapes noodles such as bavette, fettuccine, tagliatelle, linguine and pappardelle, differ in width, which is from 3 to 13 mm.
separate type of long flat pasta are mafaldine with wavy edges.
short pasta a great variety of the most popular following.
feathers penne - a small tube diameter no greater than 10 mm and a length of no more than 4 cm. The tips of pasta cut diagonally, because of what they look like sharpened pen.Their surface may be either smooth or corrugated.
Ditalini, which translated from Italian means "thimbles".Small and very short tube.
rigatoni - short and long pasta tubes wider than penne.Normally grooved.
Ziti - slightly arched tube.There may be both short and long.
Horns (Elbow macaroni) - arched, small hollow tubes.
curly pasta in the Italian tradition can be very different in form and size.What are the most popular and commonly used forms of pasta.
rotini - spiral, really small and short "springs".
fuzz - helix longer than rotini, and also curled in a "spring."There may be different types: long, thin, short and thick.
Kavatappi - very similar to the fuzz, but more stretched in length.They are hollow inside, and outside - corrugated.
Conchiglie - shell, and in the literal translation from the Italian - "clamshell".Different length and narrow internal cavity.
Lyumake - snails.In fact, it looks very similar to the house of the cochlea from which it crawled.
Farfalle - butterflies.We caught less romantic and more prosaic name - "bows."
radiator - not very tasty and romantic sounding name - the radiator, because the grooves and the grooves on each spaghetti.
Ruota - the wheel, our pasta such forms are called - "the wheels."
Orso - more reminiscent of fine rice noodles.
More in detail the kinds of Italian curly pasta are not going to just list a few names: Torchio, Gemelli, malloredas, kezaritsiya, cross di Galli, kvadrefore and Gigli.
Small pasta (pasta) for soups
for filling soups use the following types of small pasta.
Anelli - small flat rings.
Alphabet - pasta in the form of letters.
Coralli - tiny small tubes in the context resembling coral.
Stellete - stars, similar to our pasta soup of the same shape.
Filin - short strings.
Cannelloni - looks like a long, large-diameter pipes.
Manikotti - long tubes as cannelloni, but with a smaller diameter.
Konkilone - the greatest, one might say, a giant shell.
Conchiglie - shell medium size.
Lumakoni - big snail.
Lasagna - flat and broad leaves, the edges which can be either straight or wavy.
Filled pasta - pasta stuffed
Ravioli - square-shaped dumplings from pasta, it is very similar to the usual Russian dumplings.
tortellini - small dumplings in the form of rings with a variety of fillings.
Njoki - small dumplings stuffed with mashed potatoes, cheese or spinach.
On the question of what are the pasta, most of their fans aged from 3 to 12 years old will tell you that color.Indeed, it is the children love the most are the pasta!Stained, usually natural dyes.So, green pasta are obtained by adding the juice of spinach, purple - beet juice, black - squid ink.
In Italy love black and call it macaroni pasta nera.The size, shape and length of the pasta depend solely on the culinary imagination chef decided to cook them.
We reviewed the most commonly used species and varieties of pasta, in fact, the range of pasta is much greater than we can imagine.Probably, and the Italians, with the exception of professional chefs, culinary historians and engineers pasta industries do not know what are the pasta, so loved in their homeland.