Turkey in World War II took a neutral stance and did not officially supported any of the opponents.Only in 1945, the country declared war on Germany and Japan.Turkish soldiers did not take part in hostilities.In this article we will discuss the internal situation of the country and diplomatic relations with other States in the 1941 - 1945 biennium.and try to determine the role of Turkey in World War II.
position of the country before the war
Before World signs orientation of Turkey in France and England that have emerged since the 1930s, have become a steady trend.An active supporter of this line was the Foreign Minister Saracoglu, who took the post in 1938.Once in April 1939, was occupied by Italy, Albania, Turkey, the United Kingdom has provided guarantees of security and independence.In October 1939, Ankara signed the Anglo-Franco-Turkish act of mutual assistance.At the same time, the country was trying to maintain diplomatic relations with Germany.So, June 18, 1941 between the powers signed a nonaggression pact.In general, Turkey in World War II to maneuver between the two blocks in order to maintain neutrality.
Turkey at the beginning of the war
Even before the occupation by German troops in France there have been changes in the policy of Turkey.It is fully moved to a position of neutrality, while not denying the favorable attitude toward England.However, the defeat of France and the subsequent political and military successes of Germany prompted the government to negotiate with the Nazi leadership.They culminated in the signing of the June 18, 1941 treaty of friendship and non-aggression.It should be noted that before Germany successfully invaded the Balkan countries, and is very close to the borders of Turkey.At the same time, in Ankara, rumors of a possible military threat from the Soviet Union.
Thus, in 1940, Turkey's participation in World War II was in doubt.The government continued the policy of maneuvering, concluding an agreement with the warring parties.Turkish stance becomes more definite after the entry into the war of the Soviet Union.
Turkey in 1941
22 June 1941, Germany brought down the Soviet Union a powerful blow.The largest state in the world was drawn into a military conflict.After the start of the German-Soviet war Turkey passed June 25, 1941 the Soviet government note, which confirms its neutrality.Ankara has continued to adhere to its commitments.But in subsequent years, especially after the Soviet repression against Muslim peoples of Crimea and the Caucasus, Turkey intensified anti-Soviet sentiment.
Turkey in 1942 - 1945 .: internal situation
Although Turkey in World War II did not participate, the conflict severely affected the economic situation of the country.Constantly increasing size of the army (in 1942 it amounted to 1 million soldiers and officers).Military spending by 1945 "eat" about half of the country's budget.Turkey during the Second World War was in decline of the economy, agriculture and culture.This was due to mass mobilization and the introduction of cards for bread in Ankara and Istanbul.Cities lost their hands, and the prices of the most essential products grew.In 1942, the property tax was introduced, which met with the property owners and income entrepreneurs.This has led to a deepening of the financial crisis, which was associated with the abuse of officials.
political situation in the country
Turkey during World War II experienced the rise of nationalism - Turkism.This was reflected not only in the foreign policy plans of the elite, which concerned the USSR.This was clearly demonstrated in the internal actions of the Turkish government, has applied to the ideology of Pan-Turkism, the Young Turks, and even proposed an updated concept of racism developed Atsyz Nehalem River.
From 1940 to 1945 in vilayats (provinces inhabited by ethnic minorities) operated under martial law.In this regard, there are often cases of unjustified confiscation of property.In 1942, the government formed Sukru Saracoglu, the beginning of a broad campaign of patriotic propaganda Pan-Turkic style.
question of Turkey's war
Since 1943, the beginning of the anti-Hitler coalition efforts to join in the conflict on their side of Turkey.Especially this was concerned Churchill.The entry of Turkey into the war would open a second front in the Balkans and to avoid the appearance of Soviet troops on the territory.In winter 1943 conference was held at Adana.Churchill made every effort to obtain from the President of the Turkish non-neutrality.But these negotiations were not successful for any of the parties.Turkey in World War II continued to remain neutral.However, the government's sympathies were on the side of Germany.
In October 1943, representatives of allied countries gathered at a conference in Moscow.They decided to get the Turkish refusal of neutrality by the end of the year.This issue was also discussed at the Cairo and Teheran conferences.However, Turkey declared its unwillingness to join the war.
Turkey is in the final stages of the war
Turkey during World War II led a dual policy towards the powers-rivals.In 1944, the Allies stopped supplying arms to the country.In this regard, the Turkish government was forced to abandon the export of chrome to Germany.However, in June 1944, several German war ships entered the Black Sea.This led to the aggravation of the situation, and the Allies demanded from Turkey to break off relations with Germany.August 2 all agreements on economic cooperation between the two countries were canceled.
In February 1945 Yalta Conference began its work.During the talks, the allies decided to take part in the formation of the United Nations may be only those countries that were in conflict on the side of the anti-Hitler coalition.In this regard, February 23, 1945, Turkey declared war on Germany.Despite the fact that its army was not involved in the fighting, the country received an invitation to join the UN.
Discussion of the Straits
After the war, at the Potsdam Conference began to discuss the issue of the Black Sea straits.During the discussions, the agreement was signed.Straits were to be under the control of Turkey and the Soviet Union as the most interested Powers.In addition, they, to their security and maintain peace in the Black Sea region, can not prevent the use of these ways other states with hostile intentions.
international position of Turkey in the post-war years
After the war in Turkey's policy clearly defined pro-Western orientation.So, wanting to demonstrate loyalty to the United States, A. Menderes government in July 1950 in Korea recovered his brigade.Turkey was the only country in the Middle East, participated in the war on the Korean peninsula.
In October 1951, the country joined NATO, and has also signed agreements with Pakistan and Iraq.Under the patronage of England and the United States in November 1955 established a new military bloc - the Baghdad Pact (United Kingdom, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan).In 1959 it was transformed into the Central Treaty Organization, the headquarters of which is located in Ankara.
Thus, it is impossible to say for sure, Turkey has participated in World War II or not.Officially, the country adheres to neutrality.But the government is constantly inclined to cooperate with the one or the other belligerents.Turkey refused to neutrality only in February 1945, but its army did not take part in hostilities.