Many of us had to watch the picture when the once beautiful pond or lake bets turns into an ugly green slime.What happens with these water bodies and that they can help to preserve their ecosystem?
That destroys the aquatic environment
Scientifically this harmful phenomenon called eutrophication.This word literally means "plenty of food", ie the reservoir is filled with nitrogen and phosphorus, which, in turn, provokes a "bloom" of water and degrades its quality.Such an excess of these nutrients promotes excessive emergence of anaerobic microorganisms.All this leads to a decrease of oxygen in the water, because of which begins mass death of fish.Also because of overgrown algae ponds other plants do not get enough sun, so that the depleted flora.
pollution causes eutrophication
often - it's just the natural aging process of the lake.For hundreds of years the bottom continuously deposited silt from which ceases to be a deep-bowl.Therefore, once the clean pond turns into a stagnant muddy water unsuitable for fish habitat.There is also such a thing as a combined eutrophication.In this case, the course of "desolation" Many factors contribute, such as fallen leaves, fallen trees, sewage, garbage passers-by and tourists.But this is not the only source of water pollution.Many water suffer solely because of human activities.These processes stagnant nature of the "stretch" for thousands of years, but people have been able to speed up their mess and just a few decades.The reason for that are plentiful ammonia emissions and nitrogen oxides.
Causes eutrophication, which were mentioned, lead to the fact that in aqueous media are beginning to emerge rapidly nutrients.They contribute to the emergence of the next protsesov:
- living organisms in the water begin to die and fall to the bottom.Because appreciable decomposition at a depth substantially disappears oxygen.Because of this, the rest of the fish are also killed that launches a new chain, it decomposes, oxygen disappears and enhanced eutrophication.This in turn triggers the almost irreversible process.
- water becomes dark because of the huge numbers of plankton.For this reason, light is not able to get through to the bottom, so that at a depth of reservoirs useful plants disappear.Without underwater flora may form oxygen.
- In summer because nutrient situation is complicated because the cold water flowing on the bottom, top and hot can not mix, so eutrophication increases.
- As the evening a large number of remnants of plankton begins to absorb oxygen, depleting the body of water in the morning, fish, remain without air.This leads her death.
- If the pond served as a source of water for the population, over time it may become unusable.This might be due to the fact that anaerobic processes contribute to the appearance of toxic elements in the water, such as methane and hydrogen sulfide.
signs of contamination
eutrophication is determined by external characteristics.Liquid oozes typical "heavy" flavor, and on the surface appears patina.You can also see the appearance of copious slime, "islands" of algae duckweed.This green stain the water in the appropriate color.At the bottom there is a thick, viscous and nasty mass of organic deposits.If you leave this process to chance, the pond will soon become a swamp and grinds.
marine environment and nitrogen
Unfortunately, some of the sea are also susceptible to the damaging effects.Generally these water gets nitrogen from the surrounding land on which it settles.Surface water washed from the soil and carry this element in the sea.These areas are usually dominated by a warm climate, and it provokes the early decomposition of organic products.
known that eutrophication - the process is not refundable.He is able to stop and gradually the pond regains its original ecosystem.This applies not only in cases where the process of desolation at the very beginning.Even with long-term "contaminated" water bodies capable of independently "cured."But this is an important condition.The ecosystem is restored if a leak of nitrogen eliminated or reduced as much as possible.There have been cases of recovery when the pond for a long time saturate with nitrogen.When you remove this source in the soil still remains a large amount of accumulated material.But like an impenetrable vegetation served as a carpet, which did not give a detrimental impact on the aquatic ecosystem.The lake is actually recovered.Unfortunately near the rivers and reservoirs began logging or quarrying, and the "protective" layer which protects against liquid nitrogen, broken and eutrophication renewed.
How to clean ponds?
If a pond or lake rates is small, it is possible to install a special filter.It is interesting that in the past people poured into the bottom of the contaminated charcoal, which is a kind of filter.This method has been successful in part.A well established biological method.In this case, water added special microorganisms that "eat" the excess nitrogen and phosphorus.But this method is to conduct laboratory analysis of the water, so you know exactly which bacteria are helpful.The third option - is to use chemistry that allows to normalize the acid-alkaline balance.And the last, the most expensive way - is to install a device that fills the expanse of water with ultraviolet rays.They contribute to the fact that harmful bacteria lose their ability to divide and gradually die out.