It is divided into two main opposing each other, and in some respects mapped type.It is spoken and written language.They differed in their historical development, so find a variety of principles of linguistic resources.Obscheliteraturnogo language means combining types such as oral and written language are the basis for the formation and functioning of synonymous series.Disconnects their book-writing and orally-speaking agents are used in a full set in its class, and in the opposite gain access to certain restrictions.
orality is the main factor uniting the different varieties that are divided into speaking.Properties realized in the written speech varieties of books and the written type.Of course, the shape is not the only unifying factor.But in oral and conversational style is it determines the formation and functioning of specific linguistic means is different from writing the spoken word.The properties of speech are related to the nature of its generation.We consider it more detail.
differences in the generation of speech and writing
difference forms is based on a deep psycho-physiological difference.Psychologists found that the mechanisms of generation and perception of speech and writing are not the same.When the generation of writing there is always time to consider the formal statements of the plan, whereby the degree of structuring high.
Accordingly, when reading you can always stop to think more deeply written, accompanied by his personal associations.This allows both the writing and the reader to translate the necessary information from memory to long-term.Not in speaking and listening.Its features a sound primary historically speaking.The properties of speech in this case determined that it is a kind of flow that is only in its production may be interrupted by the speaker in accordance with its intentions to end or suspend information.Listen to their reception should follow the speaking time, and it is not always where it should be, it is possible to stop for a deeper thinking through.Therefore, it operates mainly short-term memory when seen speaking.Properties of speech in this case is that it is spontaneous, disposable, it can not be repeated again in the form in which has already been delivered.
In the study of a foreign language in preparation for the occupation of each sentence can be prepared in advance, but in this lesson will not work: the task requires the spontaneous production again in a smooth flow of speech issue verbal portion.Verbal speech characteristics is that it is completely impossible to prepare, it is produced largely automated.If the speaker is hard to control it, it will lose the quality of spontaneity and naturalness.Control is fully possible only in a slow learning speech, his unnatural pace of issuing a non-genuine character.
Sound written text
produced from spontaneous speech should be distinguished simple scoring of the written text, carried out by native speakers, artists, and sometimes the speakers.Such scoring does not change anything in the text, and though he sounds, but remains as written.This preserves the speech writing, all of its properties.From orality it appears only intonation contour and a possible phonetic expressiveness.That is, the acoustic properties of speech sounds vary.It is interesting to observe EA Bryzgunova compares actors voicing the same text: they differed.This means that as soon as oral speech item, in this case, the intonation, differences arise due to customize.
Oral connected it is always individual.For writing this is not the overall quality of all varieties.Only individual artistic speech and speech partly lax newspaper genres.Each speaker has its own way of characterizing the human personality from its psychological, social, even professional features and a common culture.This applies not only to the spoken speech.In Parliament, for example, the performance of each deputy highlights his personality and intellectual capacity, gives it a social portrait.Oral connected it often means more to the listener than the information contained in the speech, for which the performance takes place.
Referring to the factors of division, operating in oral and conversational style, it turns out that in addition to acting in the book-writing style here are some more.Some properties of speech are common to all oral and conversational type and characterized him as opposed to the book-writing, sharing the modern Russian literary language into two parts.Others taking part in the selection of varieties of oral-spoken type.We list these additional factors.These properties of speech are targeting, situational, verbal form (the use of monologues and dialogues).
Speaking always addressed, and directly to the listener who perceives it at the same time its production of addressee here and now.All sorts of technical tricks like delayed and then play back the recording can not be taken into account, since they are not deprived of the main communicative act: immediacy of perception, where an important time synchronization.Addressee can be: a) an individual;b) the collective;c) mass.
These three types of addressing oral literary speech coinciding with the influence of other factors in its division (all of these factors, including targeting, unidirectional), involved in the allocation of three species of oral literary language (oral and conversational type of literary language): 1) ustno-conversation;2) oral scientific;3) radio and television.
There are not addressing the immediate: a mediator between the writer and the reader of the text is a paper, and it allows you to arbitrarily delay reading, t. E. To eliminate the factor of physical time, it is endowed with the very same qualities nespontannosti and reusable.In contrast to the speech it does not apply the proverb "a word spoken is past recalling."Such indirect addressing can not be a factor of division.
The basic properties of speech also include situational.It is inherent in the spoken type, where the situation is not up for verbally expressed meaning, any inaccuracies and innuendo.It is usually considered to be the exclusive quality of conversation, but, strictly speaking, are constantly found.It shows, for example, the analysis of poetic speech, when for an accurate understanding and feeling of the poem requires a biographical comment.In general, the comments of this kind, supplying a work of art of any genre, allow to enrich the perception and understanding of the intent of the author.For added situational total appertseptsionnaya base of the speaker and the listener, the community of their knowledge and experience.All of this allows for verbal cues and provides an understanding at a glance.Partly situational peculiar and collectively addressed the question.For example, the teacher knows what his audience what they know and can than interested.Mass is addressed situational texts is not peculiar.Thus, it acts as a factor in the isolation of speaking and as a part-time factor characterizing scientific oral speech.Of course, situational can not be characterized by any type of writing type.
use of monologues and dialogues written speech
With regard to relations monologue and dialogue forms, then this property and the written and oral types for partitioning literary language variety acts differently.In the book-writing style is not playing the role of a factor of division in oral and spoken is also a factor.This is due to different ratios of monologue and dialogue in the written and oral varieties.In the book-writing type of research is generally monologic speech, but it is possible to see signs of dialogic.Although it is possible to disagree: if there is, then are not direct but rather indirect.Business it is expressed monological views, but single (usually) offer express order, request guidance, orders, etc., containing the causative verb form (imperative) mood, shape and organization close to a replica dialogue.Newspaper articles are usually monologic, but may contain elements of dialogue, imitating the readers' questions, and it suggests an answer, direct the dialogue is in the genres interview, correspondence with readers, answer questions, and others. The art of speech dialogue - a means of communication heroes, author same speech goesmonological views.But there is a fully dialogic genres.This, of course, talking about plays and drama as a form of art.In general, it turns out that as a factor of division dialogue - monologue speak indistinctly, but quite clearly show an increase dialogicality left.
monologues and dialogues in speech
in oral-conversational type of a fundamentally different relationship.It is determined by what kind of dialogical and monological speech, as a result, have a different organization, namely: a monologue - it segment by segment syntax dialogue - a brief conversational cues tough, specific conversational syntactic structure.Of course, and in writing the dialogue has its own syntactic features compared with the monologue, which is a space for multiple syntactic patterns, all the wealth of writing.But here the differences dialogic and monologic type does not entail such a fundamental difference in the syntax where specifically speaking patterns are formed in the space of dialogue.In general, the dialogic in oral-spoken type decreases from right to left.And reaches a minimum in oral scientific speech.Equality of dialogue and monologue allows among other factors highlight the division of oral spoken language as a separate species separated by this sign of radio and television, and oral scientific speech.