an integral part of modern society are the social conflict in all its diversity.Examples of conflicts we meet everywhere, starting with small quarrels and ending international confrontation.The investigation of one of these confrontations - Islamic fundamentalism - seen on the scale of one of the major world problems, which borders with the threat of World War III.However, research into the specifics of the conflict as a social and psychological phenomenon has shown that it is sufficiently broad and complex concept to evaluate its uniquely destructive perspective.
most common in scientific knowledge are considered to be two approaches to the nature of the conflict (Antsupov AY).The first defines the conflict as a clash of parties, opinions or forces;second - as a clash of opposing positions, goals, interests and attitudes of subjects interaction.Thus, in the first case considered examples of conflict wider values occurring in both animate and inanimate nature.In the second case, there is the restriction of the parties to the conflict a group of people.Thus any conflict involves certain lines of interaction between subjects (or group of entities) that develop into antagonism.
structure and specific conflict
founder conflict paradigm in general humanities considered L. Coser.One of the advantages of his theory is the recognition that there are positive examples of conflict of functional significance.In other words, Coser argued that the conflict is not always a destructive phenomenon - there are cases where it is essential for the creation of internal links of a particular system, or for the maintenance of social cohesion.
structure form of conflict, the participants (opponents, the warring parties) and their actions, the subject, the conditions / situations of conflict (for example - the crush in public transport) and its outcome.The subject of the conflict, as a rule, is closely linked to the needs of the parties involved, and for the satisfaction of which is a struggle.Collectively they can be grouped into three major groups: physical, social (status-role) and spiritual.Dissatisfaction of particular importance for the person (s) needs can be considered as a cause of conflict.
Examples typology of conflicts
According NV Grishina, in ordinary consciousness examples of conflict include quite a wide range of events - from armed conflict and confrontation between certain social groups and up to marital discord.It does not matter, whether it be the debate in Parliament or the struggle of personal desires.In today naukoznanii can meet a lot of different classifications, with no clear differentiation between "types" and "species" of conflicts.Examples of both groups often used as synonyms.Meanwhile, in our opinion, it is more expedient to allocate three main aspects in the typology of conflicts:
- types of conflicts;
- types of conflicts;
- forms of conflict.
The first aspect is the most extensive in volume.Each type can include several types of conflict, which in turn can take place in one form or another.
Types and conflicts
The main types of conflicts are:
- intrapersonal (intrapersonal);
- interpersonal (interpersonal);
- conflict between the individual and the group.
Thus, the emphasis here is on the subjects (participants) conflict.In turn, interpersonal, intergroup conflict, and the conflict between the individual and the group are examples of social conflicts.The first social conflict, along with the intrapersonal and zookonfliktom, singled out as a separate type of German sociologist Georg Simmel.In some more recent concepts of intrapersonal conflict is also included in the concept of the social, which, however, is a debatable point.
Among the main causes of social conflicts decided to allocate limited resources, the differences of people in value-semantic context, differences in life experience and demeanor, the limitations of certain features of the human psyche, and others.
Includes subjectively experienced misalignment of certain trends in identitypersonality (ratings, attitudes, interests and so on. d.), interacting with each other in the development process (Mitin LM Kuzmenkova OV).In other words, we are talking about a clash of certain incentive structures that can not be satisfied (implemented) at the same time.For example, a man can not love his work, but to be afraid to leave because of the prospects remain unemployed.The child may be tempted to shirk a lesson at the same time afraid of being punished for it, and so on. D.
In turn, this type of conflict can be the following types (Antsupov AY, Shipilov AI):
- motivation ("I want" and "want");
- conflict inadequate self-esteem ("I" and "I");
- role ("should" and "must");
- conflict unrealized desires ("I want" and "I");
- moral ("I want" and "must");
- adaptation ("should", "can").
Thus, this classification distinguishes three main components of personality structure, collide with each other: "I want to" (I want), "I have" (it should be), and "I am" (I).If we compare this concept with a certain personality structure, developed by Sigmund Freud in psychoanalysis, we can see a conflict of Eid (want), ego (I) and the superego (necessary).Also in this case it is advisable to recall the transactional analysis of Eric Berne and allocated them to three positions of the individual: child (want) Adult (I), Parent (necessary).
This type occurs in the case of disagreements and conflicts between individuals.Among the features it can be noted that it takes place on a "here and now" can be both objective and subjective reasons, and, as a rule, characterized by high emotion involved.Interpersonal type can also be divided into separate types of conflicts.
For example, depending on the specific relationship of subordination between the parties, interpersonal conflicts can be divided into conflicts "vertical", "horizontal" and "diagonal".In the first case we are dealing with a subordinate relationship, such as manager - an employee, teacher - student.The second case occurs when the parties to the conflict on an equal footing, and do not obey each other - co-workers, spouses, passers-by, the people in the queue, and so on. D. Conflicts diagonally may occur between opponents who are in indirect subordinate - between the chiefservice and duty on the part between a senior and a junior, and so on. in. (when the participants are in different positions in terms of, but subordinate relationship with each other is not made up).
also interpersonal conflicts can include species such as the family (marital, parent-child conflict between brothers and sisters), domestic conflict in the organization (an example of organizational conflict we see every time a collision occurs in varying productionstructure between its subjects within the working relationship), and others.
By intergroup conflicts usually referred collision between individual members of different social groups (large, small and medium-sized), and between these groups as a whole.In this case, you can also select this type, as the conflict in the organization (examples: between employees and the management, administration and trade union, students and teachers, and others.), Household (if the conflict involved several members of two or more groups - for example, in utilitiesapartments in the queue, public transport and so on. d.).
can also select such examples of social conflicts on the intergroup level as inter-ethnic, inter-cultural and religious.Each of these types of covers broad sectors of the population and is characterized by a considerable length of time.Furthermore, isolated species may have a crossover character.Another category are international conflicts (examples of which we constantly see in the news), including between the individual states and their coalitions.
conflict between the individual and the group
This type usually occurs in the case where a single individual in the group refuses to act like the rest of the participants, demonstrating the non-conformist behavior.Either he commits some act which in the group considered it unacceptable that provokes conflict.As an example may be a feature film Rolan Bykov "Scarecrow" (1983), in which the main character, Lena Bessoltseva, comes into conflict with the class.It is also a shining example of non-conformist behavior in a group of provoking the conflict is the tragic fate of the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno.
forms of conflict
This category implies a certain specificity of action that form the conflict.Among the main forms in which the flow of conflict possible, the following (Samson NV): debate (debate) claim, condemnation, boycotts, strikes, sabotage, strike warfare (swearing), row, threat, hatred, assault, coercion, assault, war (political conflict).Examples of debate and controversy can also be found in the scientific community that proves the possibility of constructive conflict.
For all types of conflicts can be considered three main theoretical approaches:
In terms of this approach hostility particular person or group is above all a reflection of its internal problems.For example, from the perspective of Freud autogruppovaya hostility it is inevitable condition for any inter-group interaction, having a universal character.The main function of this hostility - a means of maintaining internal stability and cohesion of the group.A special place in this case, take the political conflicts.Examples can be found in the history of the formation of the fascist movement in Germany and Italy (the idea of racial superiority), as well as in the history of the struggle against "enemies of the people" in the period of Stalin's repressions.Freud linked the mechanism of autogruppovoy hostility to "foreign" to the Oedipus complex, the instinct of aggression and emotional identification with the leader of the group - the "father" and others. In terms of morality such facts can not be considered as a constructive conflict.Examples of racial discrimination and mass terror, however, clearly demonstrate the possibility of rallying the members of one group in the process of confrontation with others.
The theoretical concept of aggressiveness American psychologist Leonard Berkowitz as one of the key factors intergroup conflicts acts relative deprivation.That is one of the groups evaluate their position in society as a more disadvantaged position compared to the other groups.This deprivation is relative, since the disadvantaged position in reality may not be accurate.
situational approach This approach focuses on external factors, the situation causing the occurrence and specificity of the conflict.For example, in studies of the Turkish psychologist Muzaffer Sheriff, it was found that the hostility of one group against another is greatly reduced if, instead of competitive conditions they provided conditions for cooperation (the need to implement joint activities in which the outcome depends on the common efforts of all participants).Thus, the sheriff comes to the conclusion that the factors of the situation in which interacting groups are crucial in determining the cooperative or competitive nature of intergroup interaction.
In this case, the focus is on the dominant role of cognitive (mental) systems involved in the conflict to each other.So, in a situation of intergroup conflicts hostility of one group against another is not necessarily caused by an objective conflict of interest (as was stated in a realistic theory of conflicts within the framework of the situational approach).Accordingly, it is not a cooperative / competitive nature of the situation becomes a decisive factor in interpersonal and intergroup interaction and resulting in a group setting.By themselves, the overall objectives are to resolve the conflict between opponents - it depends on the formation of social attitudes that unite the group and contribute to overcome their opposition.
Tedzhfel and Turner developed the theory of social identity, according to which conflicts between groups are not a necessary consequence of social injustice (unlike motivational approach).Faced with this injustice, individuals have the ability to choose these or other ways to overcome it.
conflictological culture of personality
Regardless of whether there are international conflicts, exemplified most clearly demonstrate the destructive nature of conflict behavior of the parties;or whether it is a minor quarrel between colleagues is extremely important it seems the best way out.The ability of the opposing sides to find compromises in the complex conflict situation, to restrain their own destructive behavior, see the possible prospects for further cooperation with these opponents - all of these factors are the key to a favorable outcome possible.At the same time, no matter how important was the total of public policy, economic, cultural and legal system in society, the origins of this trend are some specific individuals.Just as the river begins with small streams.
conflictological It is a culture of personality.The corresponding concept includes the ability and desire of the individual to the prevention and resolution of social conflicts (Samson NV).In this case, it is advisable to recall the concept of "constructive conflict".Examples of contemporary conflicts (given their keen and widespread character) show, rather, the lack of any constructive conflict interaction.In this regard, the concept of cultural identity conflictological should be considered not only and not so much as one of the conditions for the optimal resolution of disputes in society, but also as an important factor of socialization of the personality of every modern individual.