Starting a conversation about government and the opposition, we should recall the words of Mikhail Bulgakov: "All power is violence against the people, and the time will come when there is no power nor Caesar, nor any other power.Man goes into the realm of truth and justice, where there will be no need any power ... "(" The Master and Margarita ").
Power and its manifestations
possible existence of any state without power?Hardly.In human society, the authorities laid on a subconscious level.Some are eager to control and dominate, while others can not imagine their existence without guidance from above.Freud treats the source of power as a desire to exercise their libido, and according to the theory of Adler, the desire to have power is nothing other than the payment of their own inferiority complex.What is power?This concept is defined by the ability to manipulate (control), realizing their personal or public interests.Control can be carried out at the level of a single person, and at the level of the state or around the world, regardless of the wishes of the governed.Power - is a tool by which a person or a group of people united by one more or less similar interests and striving for the same goals (political parties and movements) can concentrate around him the strength and resources that will contribute to the goal, to suppress the will of others even in the facetheir will, to dictate their conditions and control the processes and mechanisms for the distribution of the most important and scarce material, natural and social values.Political power involves achieving the objectives for the benefit of the entire community of people, this government obeys.It usually has a single center of decision-making, can operate in various fields and to use all possible levers.Political power has a clearly defined hierarchical structure.
way to confront society and government
not always the people come to the delight of the control method.None of ruling politicians, no matter how powerful it may be, can not be sure of his political future.People's anger - a terrible force, because the people in anger turns into a crowd, and the crowd can not be controlled.But to the people began to operate, necessarily I need a man who is not afraid to speak out against the government.Typically, this is a desperate fanatics, firmly believed in his innocence.With the advent of "humanity" of fanatics ceased to burn at the stake and put on a stake.They were allowed to join in the group, which became known as the "political opposition".This was done in order to have some semblance of control over them.For the winner is the one who knows the enemy in the face.In the era of the opposition Union could not exist as real as any visible force in principle.It was a unit in the government and outside the state apparatus, which had absolutely no political weight.In modern Russian political system allows the formation of opposition political parties in the sense in which it was originally defined the concept of "opposition party".That is, the structure began to appear with the documents set forth by law, aimed at the interests of the citizens who do not agree with the line of the ruling party.The work of the opposition party is to promote the society of their ideology and conduct outreach.The result of this work is either overthrowing the current government, a significant change in the public consciousness.
Power and opposition
role of the opposition in the life of modern Russia is quite ambiguous.On the one hand, there are political forces that have a high percentage of the electorate, whose programs are largely different from the program, not only the ruling party but other political formations who call themselves the opposition.On the other hand, no opposition party can not be recognized as such, it is in relation to the ruling political party.The alignment of political forces in Russia today is as follows: the ruling party in parliament represented the "United Russia", and the role played by the opposition Communist Party and the Liberal Democratic Party.These two parties were able to gain more than 7% of the vote in the last Duma elections.This so-called systemic opposition.There is also a non-systemic opposition.It is the political parties in Russia, does not overcome the 7% barrier, but admitted to work in the parliament.However, any weight they have.All other movements expressing their political point of view, are considered marginal and Registration Service screened as those which were not able to prove their ability to perform the functions of the party.
opposition in Russia has always existed.Most vividly Russian opposition began to manifest itself in the early twentieth century, when the Bolsheviks came to power.Although the word "opposition" has become something like a stigma, the party formed in this difficult period, attempted to negotiate with the new government.These efforts continued until 1929.But again, the real strength of opposing the Bolsheviks - "White movement" - at that time had already been completely destroyed, the opposition is allowed only inside the Bolshevik movement.On the possibility of the existence of the opposition outside the party at the level of the people did not concede.With the coming to power of Stalin all dissent was punishable by death, so the concept of "opposition party" has ceased to exist.But it is the nature of the Russian soul, that it does not accept any violence against them.In contrast to the severe regime of terror in the late 30s there is a "moral opposition".She found its expression in the revival of the faith underground, but the faith of all denominations absolutely.Malenkov in a letter to Stalin expressed his doubts about the possibility of the conquest of Europe, such a people.This was the impetus for a new wave of terror in 1937, which destroyed almost the entire former aristocracy and the intelligentsia of the Union.Only in 1985, the Communist Party General Secretary Gorbachev, his thesis about the democratization of Soviet society, in fact, allow a multiparty system, thereby returning to the opposition of life.
With the elimination of the Communist Party as the ruling party united political community was faced with a difficult choice.Naturally, it was necessary to develop at least some program that would allow the state to such resources, not only to survive, but also to regain its leading position on the world stage.The process of alignment of political forces takes quite a long time.During its formative power and the opposition have undergone tremendous changes.The democratization of liberalism and the new socio-political society are paramount.By 1993, the party system was formed, consisting of three units: the center-left, centrist and center-right.The leader was the centrist bloc that supports the president.It included the DPR, PRES, "Apple" and "Choice of Russia".Fight with the participation of the ruling and opposition parties, it develops on the background of the recession level of the economy, when pro-government party loses its position by encouraging the opposition political parties.In addition, inter-ethnic conflicts in border borders allow the extreme left and extreme right-wing forces to build electoral capacity.This situation, of course, puts the opposition parties at the leading position in Russia.
in the Duma IV convocation (2003), a leader leaves the party "United Russia".The appearance on the scene such a strong player prioritization is gradually changing.Political parties and their leaders are gradually removed from leadership positions.Pro-government parties permanently secures its leading position, based on the ideology of conservatism and immediately opposing the more radical movements.From that moment begins a new stage of development of the Russian society.The main objective is to preserve the party leadership positions for 15 years.In order to achieve this objective is to be formed civic consciousness, which will be supported by a stable economic situation and a common idea about the Great of Russia.It is the patriotic feelings in the first bet of the party leadership.One of the stages of formation of national patriotism was the signing of an agreement on the adoption of measures to prevent xenophobia and racial discrimination.Political parties of Russia almost unanimously signed the document.Thanks to a clear realization of the party's program, improve the welfare of the nation, the party "United Russia" won in the last elections to the Legislative Assembly of the tremendous support of voters, this is also due to the majority of the ruling party in local government at all regional levels.The presence of a powerful political force, having such support among the population of the state, the opposition parties put Russia in a difficult position.
The main problem faced by almost every opposition party, is competitiveness.The mechanism of governance and lawmaking is constructed in such a way that the opposition is difficult to influence its functioning.Get the support of the working population even harder, because in order that the working class began to protest against the ruling party, it is necessary to find the cause of discontent.But what if all satisfied, satisfied with the work, spend leisure time with interest?How do I get people to complain?There are several options.First - pensioners.Here you can play on nostalgia for the Soviet past.But then bad luck - pensions fully meets the needs of citizens, survivors of the hungry 90s and do not want to change the well-fed "now" to the unknown "tomorrow."The second option - the local intelligentsia and the oligarchs, but their number is too small to support a powerful, and they are unlikely to want to quarrel with the current regime.It remains the younger generation.This promotion is aimed at young people of today's opposition.With young people easier to work with.They are more susceptible of indoctrination, have good mobility and require little or no material costs.Youthful maximalism inherent in almost all the members of the youth movements, ably handling experimental psychology becomes really powerful weapon.It is unlikely that these movements can significantly affect the political life of Russia, but the real power of the street parties such opposition can be used to achieve their own goals.
manifestations of such forces became notorious events on Bolotnaya street.The sad thing is that the Russian political parties who consider themselves in opposition to the authorities, once again proved its complete failure just as political parties.For the crowd gathered on Bolotnaya Square, it is not motivated by the slogans that the opposition put forward.Calls for the resignation of the government and new elections were borrowed from the demonstrators in Kiev "Maidan", and indeed the tactics were quite similar, but not the case.The fact that the very possibility of the protest was the signal for the authorities.The signal of the growing national consciousness, to learn to think and draw conclusions.Against the background of "color" revolutions Maidan and assorted Marsh could seriously damage not only the political image of the ruling party, but Putin personally.What saved the situation the lack of leaders.The meeting is quite a large number of people, let me throw out the accumulated energy in the years of fullness, ended exactly the way over, that is nothing more than a few dozen criminal cases and general feeling of euphoria from overcoming his own fear of the authorities.Whether instigators popular revolt a true leader, a change of government could be real.But as they say, to shout and left.Today the opposition leaders are unable to motivate the electorate on any serious actions, they do not have the leadership qualities that helped to inspire the crowd.
Unrealized task rally on Bolotnaya and Sakharov Avenue determined the direction in which the political parties of the opposition have to move on.The first step to success is, of course, the creation of a headquarters of the opposition, which will be composed of those leaders who have the greatest potential.Work must be carried out using the maximum amount of resources.If propaganda through the media is rather limited capacity, the World Wide Web is not limited by censorship.Great opportunities acquire bloggers.Their activities can be directed to the formation of social consciousness, the collection of sociological data, but you never know options for unlimited imagination ... there are chances of success, and those movements that did not implement their political ambitions during the elections at all levels.Joining the united opposition force provides some, albeit illusory, the possibility of returning old products.Undoubtedly the fact that strong opposition will make a new infusion of private capital.While the very mention of money in the plane of the fight against corruption in politics can be called blasphemous, but any force should have a real material basis.Bringing the opposition party of the rich and successful people rather provides substantial support for all revolutionary undertakings.And the final, but by no means the most insignificant link in the chain should be the intellectuals and representatives of the beau monde.Dear artists, creative elite - they are able to lead the people, at least their fans.
Is there a future?
Taking into account the experience of previous years, it begs the question: "How long will the ruling political parties in Russia to restrain the opposition?" It is known that there is nothing eternal.Recent events make us think hard about the prospects for the current government and opportunities for the opposition.That phenomenon, which was observed in 2012 in Moscow, speaks only of the political maturation of society, which became possible due to the change of generations.The society that has its own political vision and does not need leaders.The Company, which has been able to mobilize in a relatively short time and clearly express their position, can be considered quite mature, ready for dialogue with the authorities.And it is right to call themselves the opposition today, ready to defend the interests not of specific individuals or parties, but the whole nation.Clearly, the phenomenon of popular opposition, should be developed, otherwise it is impossible to develop the society.Russian consciousness is no longer centered around one person, so the change of the leader at this stage of social development is not a problem.Moreover, in today's society disappear the concept of "leader".And the government should keep this in mind.With the opposition can and must be an agreement, it must be able to hear.The opposition needed power at least in order to help correct mistakes and not let relax.