This term usually refers to both the senses and to other mental processes, describing the qualitative components of cognitive images of any complexity level.
According to current modalities can be classified as sensation and representation, and perception.
interpretation of the term under review
modality - a form of manifestation of the stimulus in the current human sensory system (auditory, visual, tactile).In Latin, the term means "the way".
leading modality - the preference of the individual in relation to "touch food", by which man is best aware of what is happening.
Unlike spatial, and temporal characteristics intensivnostnyh sensations considered characteristics reflect the specific properties of reality through their specific coded form.For example, the wavelength of light is seen as light, and the frequency of the sound waves is recognized as a tone.
modality in psychology - is the common name and the primary channels of perception and channels of internal processing of information material.
is a known fact that the nervous system of a single person is individual and unique.So it is with the so-called food information to her.
are the following types of modality:
- visual - visual (pictures, color, light and visual images).
- Auditory - auditory (sounds, music, images and auditory tone).
- kinesthetic - tactile (touch, muscle and skin feeling gut feeling).
- logical - semantic, abstract, discrete (terms, reasoning, generalization of the concept).
This channel of perception is optional.Its distinctive feature - the use of the information obtained is not of primary sensations.Logical view modality acts as a secondary sensor channel.But also obtained through the primary channel of information a person can process so that it loses all connection with them (semantic channel).It reflects a process of understanding information through abstract knowledge.
According to the Russian scientist IPPavlov logical modality - a second signal system.This channel is often the scientists tend to use as communication, trying to strengthen its schoolchildren.
to communicate the greatest value acquire the first three of the above channel.Almost everyone has one channel of perception of existing information prevails over the other.
therefore becomes necessary to meet the sensory deprivation, but not any information, but only one that requires the individual leading modality.
For greater clarity should lead an obvious example, to solve the problem one man will parse the possible answers through the sketches on paper, and another - pronouncing them out loud, the third - Connect the materials at hand.
kinesthetic perception channel
This modality of sensations, that is, bodily perception, which is referred to as "somatic sensations."These in turn are divided into domestic (pain, relaxation and tension, muscle sense, a sense of movement and posture, internal organs) and external (temperature (cold and heat), vibration, pressure).
Kinesthetic channels of perception are closely intertwined with emotions that reflect the same inner feelings and verbally described just as they are.For example, "easy on the heart."
osmicheskaya There is also a modality of sensations (olfactory - taste and smell).The most common perception of the channel combined with kinesthetic.However, odor and taste are completely different systems of perception, yet the person analyzes them simultaneously, and in this regard, they are grouped together.An example may serve expression "fine taste", "sweet smell" and so on. D.
Odorless essentially lost all flavor palette.In practice, this may serve as a confirmation of a common phenomenon when a person with impaired olfactory (nasal) take the food that it seems tasteless and fresh, although the body responsible for taste, is functioning properly.
This is to some extent in the corresponding judgment more information with regards to its logical or factual status, and evaluation, regulatory, and other time. Characteristics.
modality judgments represented by such important and the most common species are:
essence alethic modality
It is presented in the judgment, which is expressed by contrasting terms such as the need for - an accident, the possibility - the impossibility of a logical or factual information determinism.To be precise, the modal in this situation, in our language are considered to be directly the word "accident" and "possible" and their synonyms.
Types alethic modality
They are represented by the following restrictions:
- problematic (judgment with regards to the possibility of occurrence of the event).Now, the above example assumes the following form: In Russia, reforms can be carried out in respect of the Armed Forces.Assertive (judgments about actual existing facts).For example: In Russia now it does pass the reform of the Armed Forces.As you can see, there is no expression of modality, and only stated the fact of what is happening directly.
- apodictically (judgments about the need for fulfillment of events).Example: In Russia it is necessary to hold a series of reforms in the armed forces.
deontic modality view
It applies only to human activities, legal and moral norms of behavior in society.
deontic modalities - is expressed by the judgment request, order, instruction or advice, prompting certain actions.These regulations may be regulations (including the law).The term deontic modalities of perception by means of the words, "allowed", "must", "prohibited", etc.
Classification deontic modalities, depending on the nature of the existing regulations
In this regard, there are judgments:
- The presence or absence of law.They are expressed by means of words such as "right", "allowed", "banned" and others.
- The presence or absence of duties.Words, a judgment are: "should", "shall", and others.
definition of epistemic modality
It characterizes the degree of truthfulness of knowledge.Epistemic modality - is expressed by the judgment information with regards to the grounds for its decision and the degree of validity.That is in the process of exchange of information in the course of human communication is supposed to clear awareness of the grounds for the adoption of a rejection expressed using statements estimates, opinions, evidence and so on. D.
on the decision to adopt expressions are influenced by many objective and subjective, internal and external factors, the most important of which are recognized logic (based judgments are the opinions expressing faith) and extra-logical (judgments that are logically justified and express knowledge).The manifestation of this modality of perception takes place through words: "unprovable", "refuted", "proven", etc.
Types of epistemic modality
They are represented by two judgments:
- Base serves faith.Example: I believe that everything will be fine.
- basis is knowledge.Example: According to witnesses, Ivanov did not participate in the commission of the theft.
She is represented by the relationship of man to the spiritual and material values and is expressed by such words as "bad", "good", and so on. D. An example of this modality acts judgment: It is good that it started to rain.
linguistic scope of this concept
modality in the language (English) is a particular characteristic that indicates the likelihood of the need, opportunity.
There are five basic modal verbs, four of which are in the form of the past tense (indicated below by this sign "/").
So should list them:
- can / could;
- may / might;
- shall / should;
- will / would;
- must / no.
However, this concept is expressed not only through the modal verbs, but using modal adverbs such as:
- likely (more likely);
- surely (surely);
- possibly (probably), etc.