This phenomenon is rooted in the Old Testament times, it has repeatedly changed its name to "evocation", "necromancy", "mediumship".And only in the end of XIX century there were placed all points over «i»: then came quickly subsumed into vogue word "spiritualism."
One of the first mentions of necromancy can be found in the Bible.It says that the king of Israel, Saul, frightened by the invasion of the Philistines, caused by a Witch of Endor spirit of the prophet Samuel, in order to ask his advice.Angered by Samuel, appearing severely rebuked the king of the Jews for the ungodly rituals and predicted Saul defeat and impending death.Tradition has a long evocation pagan roots.In particular, the Sumerians, the Persians, the Celts and northern people for over a thousand years, it was decided to contact the spirits of dead ancestors -praschurov.Specific spells shaman or druid revived the image of the deceased tribesman, and then carefully listened to the sounds (faint whistling or whispering), which was published called ancestor.
ancient Slavs and representatives of the African tribes preferred to deal with the spirits of nature: water, fire, wood.Prior to the adoption of Christianity in the lands of the Slavs especially revered magicians, who were able to call these powerful gods, like Perun, Veles, Chernobog, Stribog or Semargl.Communication with these formidable representatives of the other world was very dangerous and incompetent sorcerer could even result in death.But in the case of a successful contact the gods demanded heavy sacrifices.This victim, as a rule, become "clean" animals (herbivores).But the most effective were considered human sacrifice committed by a large gathering of tribesmen on a pagan temple, and sometimes turns into an orgy of unrestrained.
Under pain of death
In many ways it is this side of necromancy eventually became the cause of the mass persecution of the charmers spirits.Which replaced paganism to Christianity in Europe has unleashed a real war against the spiritualists, announcing activity necromancy most terrible and disgusting manifestation of black magic.The peak of the struggle Christians necromancers began XVII century, once in 1604 in England was adopted by the notorious "Act of witchcraft."Following this document, almost to the end of the century there annually burned at the stake up to hundreds of necromancers.Often, fell under suspicion and innocent people.
So Chronicles 1657 English Derby town tell of a certain Elizabeth Barker, who for a week and kept them in his home the dead body of her husband.Denounced by neighbors, she was devoted to ecclesiastical trial, he confessed after torture that involved the evocation of the spirit of her late husband, and was executed.It was only after some time there were witnesses who reported that poor widow had no means for a decent burial of her husband and was waiting for the promised help from one of the distant relatives.
in Russia peak employment necromancy came in the dark days of the reign of John IV.Emperor ruthlessly punished witches, warlocks and spellcasters spirits, but ... he was not averse to engage in spiritualism.By extant data, interest in necromancy have prompted the Russian Czar English adventurer, doctor and astrologer Elizeus Bomelius, with whom Ivan the Terrible times evoked the spirits of their ancestors - the kind of Rurik princes.During one of these sessions, which was the spirit of the late Prince Svyatopolk Damned if and advised the king to create oprichnina.
new surge of enthusiasm the ancient mystery of necromancy happened in the middle of the XIX century, when the Frenchman Allan Kardec, became interested in the paranormal, after studying ancient manuscripts brought necromantic the basic tenets of modern spiritualism.It is believed that Kardec began to use during Ouija Round salon table for playing cards, which took their seats around the action.Such a ritual very soon was called "table-", because during the evocation table began to rotate.A. Kardec wrote several works: "The Book of Spirits," "The Book of Mediums" and "The Gospel in the interpretation of the spirits", which in our days - board table-book fans.
In the second half of the XIX century fascination with spiritualism spread to America, where as tools mediums began to use the famous dish with a painted arrow with letters and cards.
Since the 70s of XIX century spiritualism penetrate into Russia.Summoning the spirits become a favorite pastime in the aristocratic salons and even at the imperial court.It is known that in 1890 the future Emperor Nicholas II summoned the spirit of Napoleon, who, alas, predicted his inglorious reign and tragic death.
Stormy and dramatic events in the world in the first half of the XX century, several diminished interest in the exotic pastime.However, there is evidence that Hitler, Mussolini and Roosevelt practiced experiments with evocation, but reliable data on this are not preserved.Only the 70-ies hobby spiritualism again beginning to gain momentum.He became especially popular among the youth of France, Britain and the United States.At its sessions neospiritisty, unlike their predecessors, actively used psychotropic substances, used elements of voodoo rituals, and even satanic.
In the last quarter of the XX century in the world to spread the closed society spiritualists.According to the Soviet security organs, such as the organization in the 1980s and appeared in our country in a number of cities in the Baltic, as well as in Moscow, Leningrad, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg.Around the same time, representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church began to sound the alarm about the hobbies that godless affair, which, according to Orthodox priests, bringing people up to demonic possession and turned away from Christianity.The Fathers of the Church explained: spiritualism sessions instigated by evil spirits, and often the medium who believes that communicates with the spirit of a dead person, in fact, come into contact with a demon.
In this regard instructive were the events that occurred with a resident of Krasnoyarsk Elena Ivanova (name changed) in the mid-1990s.Then, after returning from a tourism trip to France, Elena fascinated Ouija, which attracted and their girlfriends.The women first approached the spirits of dead relatives, then gradually moved to the famous historical figures.
One day, instead of the long-dead politics in touch with Elena came a spirit who called himself Velerosom, which is very long and seemed willing to answer all questions about the interests of women.After a few days in the apartment of Elena suddenly were heard mysterious sounds: tapping, the rustle of invisible clothes, and creaking sighs.They are especially worse at night.Soon, women began to be ghostly male figure that was later claimed Elena, she saw even in the street, on public transport and at work, even though none of the people who were there, nothing like watching.
Six months later, Elena Ivanova was hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital with a diagnosis of malignant schizophrenia.Spiritualist table donated by Elena in France, girlfriend unhappy immediately destroyed and never again returned to this exciting but very dangerous.
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Articles Source: Secrets of the twentieth century number 29 2011