During full-scale hostilities and of front operations to deliver powerful fire strikes on the enemy using various missile and artillery means.Especially important is the possibility of causing maximum damage in the case of the well-prepared echelon defense line.Shooting guns designed to destroy towering above the plane of the ground, with a flat trajectory of the projectile is usually ineffective.Hidden underground fortifications protected in order to destroy them, firing from the top is required.Sometimes it turns out to be useless, despite the large area of destruction and thermal factors, even a system salvo.
Photos of this self-propelled mortar flashed on the sites and pages of publications in connection with the tragic events in the east of Ukraine.Defense Minister Valery Geleta, visiting Poland, said there that this "latest" weapons will be available to the militias of the eastern boundary of the test in a real combat.Immediately it should be noted that the self-propelled mortar is by no means the last word of Russian military and technological advances, it is taken out of production for a quarter of a century ago.Where did have armed forces system "Tulip"?Military aid to the "northern neighbor" at anything.According to staff both the DNI (but only two of them) installation captured during the fighting the enemy, APU, one under the big jug, the other in Ilovaiskaya boiler.But the confusion is intensified when they were referred to the mysterious chemical and even nuclear weapons that allegedly can shoot the self-propelled mortar.Further developments have not confirmed the worst fears Ukrainian Staff ATO.However, the question remains as to whether the reasons for considering the possibility of using militias weapons of mass destruction, and what have the system "Tulip"?Is it really so terrible?What are her options?For what purpose it was created and when?What kind of destruction it can actually produce, in other words, what are the tactical and technical data?Due to the frequent mention in the press of these weapons is to demystify, behind which is hidden artillery system "Tulip".
Fluctuations party line
history of post-war development of Soviet artillery automotive systems full of drama, and therefore very interesting.After an impressive breakthrough of Soviet missile technologies, the creation of intercontinental ballistic vehicles and launch of the first satellite of the Earth from the country's leadership in the face of the First Secretary of the CPSU, NSKhrushchev emerged the notion that guns firing shells - embodiment of yesterday, "Stone Age."Setting party leader tried to protest, but, given his temper, made it rather timidly, which led to almost complete destruction of Soviet artillery shield without the enemy armies."Under the Knife" were all large-caliber guns, and even a battleship on which they were installed.But there were construction ... For example, during the war CB B. Shavyrina designed the M-240, 240 mm mortars, which in 1951 went to the series.The fire he could keep at a distance of 8 kilometers, and with spetszaryadom and to 9.7 km.Mina (projectile with fins) weighed 130 kg, it is fed into the barrel breech, like guns.His imaginary uselessness has led to the closure of production in 1958.
After removal from the post of "Secretary General, the miracle worker," the new leadership has returned to the idea of large-caliber artillery combat vehicles.Took out a legacy of the war years depressed sample.In modern warfare, the SU-100 and SU-152 are able to demonstrate a complete uselessness, and the inevitability of obsolescence.
Meanwhile, the US Army in Vietnam applied the M-109 howitzer field, causing serious damage to the Viet Cong troops.Shot costing the US Treasury cheaper airstrike or missile salvo, and the result is not inferior.
design bureau engaged in artillery, was given the task immediately at the decision of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers on the development of new self-propelled artillery systems.In the late sixties of the Kharkov Tractor-tank factory I had as soon as possible to start production of 2C2 "Carnation" 122mm, Volgograd do 122-millimeter "Violet," and in the Urals, attended by two samples.They were "Acacia" (self-propelled 152 mm howitzer) and mortar system "Tulip".Such are the flowers.
In undertaking the development of a unique sample at the time, the band CB, headed by Yuri Tomaszow, could not imagine how many problems he will face.However, at the Perm Machine-Building Plant named after VILenin (now the "MZ"), they were not afraid of difficulties, and consistently allowed all the difficult tasks, and there were many.Eloquently about the resourcefulness and ingenuity of Soviet engineers say dozens of copyright certificates obtained in the course of the project 2S4 "Tulip".
main bottlenecks were two: a lot of weight, and unprecedented system for mortar return.Tracked vehicle, which was originally intended to apply, was insufficient carrying capacity, it could carry 21.4 tons (which is also very much).The system of "Tulip", however, weighed more than twenty-seven.The nationwide defense industry co-operation has helped to solve this problem.CB "Transmash" has already had a vehicle for RK Launcher "Circle", which decided to use, making the necessary structural changes.Replacing the 400-hp engine with a more powerful (520 hp) solved the problem of increasing the speed and service life of 3,000 to 5,000 km), because of fire "Tulip" should have been in a real war, move more and faster than the rocket launchers.You can not argue that the undercarriage went KB Yu Tomashov finished, it had to adapt substantially, replacing up to 80% of the elements tracked base, but the benefits of cooperation with subcontractors is undeniable.
That's the return!
During the test, the first experimental prototype testing ground "Rzhevka" resounded two loud shots.Third was not followed.The reason - heavy duty dynamic wave that created the system "Tulip".Military super reliable and super-tough machinery broke down and return air strike.The base plate is located on the body, cracked and fuel tanks crumpled like paper.The blow was too strong, it was estimated at 450 tonnes.Take it on yourself could only land, so the thought of emphasis on base frame had to be abandoned.It was designed a special lifting and lowering unit with hydraulic drive, putting the barrel in the firing position.
So much effort paid off.During the test at the landfill near Kaliningrad most powerful weapon howitzer 152 mm caliber could cause substantial harm to the concrete pillboxes, while their first hit destroyed the system of "Tulip".Weapons proving its effectiveness and reliability have gone into mass production.In 1969, three copies were built, and two years later a sample officially accepted for service.
Continuity - good quality for all weapons.Proven technology and proven technical specifications attached to the model reliability, eliminating the unnecessary surprises during operation.Ballistics and the characteristics of the trunk of fire "Tulip" fully comply with the characteristics of the product M-240, developed in the penultimate year of the war under the leadership of N. Kalachnikova and SN turf, taken into service in 1958.Perm Machine SKB has established towed "mortar gain", which could not move independently (required tractor unit), but had a high level of firepower.He charges the breech, which served as a gate fold up.When in 1967 began designing the system "Tulip", the weapon got its own chassis and many other units, giving it more perfect, but its value has increased (up to 200 thousand Soviet rubles).
prototype was in Russian a simple, but very reliable and accurate, which is also in line with national traditions.Recoil device in the construction of missing, the machine was equipped with a screw mechanism guidance arrows for transfer to the firing position, shvornevoy paw, expansion joints, base plate (to her, in the end, and had to return), as well as sight.Even then, the fire could lead to eight kilometers away, and in 1953 this distance was reduced to 9.7 km at the expense of long-range special feathered projectile.
trunk of this heavy mortar and legacy systems, "tulip", adopted by the Soviet Army began in 1971.
special ammunition "Daredevil»
the destructive power of these weapons is unique among mortars.For loader requires a special mechanism.The funnel, which produces the explosion of the projectile guns 2S4 "Tulip" weighing 130 kg in the explosion, has a diameter of 10 meters.The usual charge is made up of two pounds of TNT.This is a great power, but in addition to it, for the successful defeat of the purpose and required accuracy.For its increase requires special guidance system, which provides the possibility of correction in flight.Adopted in 1982, it was adopted particularly accurate "Daredevil" (1K113) with a smaller mass of the charge (69 kg), but equipped with eight lateral solid-rocket thrusters.This particular munition is a hybrid of artillery shells and rockets, has its own control unit designator and rangefinder.Correction guidance is carried out by illumination with a laser beam.Hours of equipment does not exceed three seconds, which leaves no chance to survive enemy with even the most technologically advanced equipment capable of electronic warfare and directed by electromagnetic interference.
«Daredevil" for its original purpose was a shell, designed to destroy armored vehicles.That did not stop its use while performing other tasks, such as assault that has acquired special importance during the war in Afghanistan.Appearance instruments was not known to the general public, what to do, the system "Tulip" - the military.Photos in which the soldiers and officers of the limited contingent of Soviet Army wanted to impress themselves on the background of a huge mortar objections from the field of censorship for reasons of secrecy.No wonder it was not.The use of this type of weapon was not advertised.Arsenal munitions that can be charged mortar 2S4 «Tulip» diverse.Blasting charges presented by cluster "seal" in the explosion which scattered high-explosive elements ZOF16 and incendiary "Sayda" capable of napalm to burn all life on an area of nearly 8000 square meters.m.
But besides the usual charges can be used and special.For example, a tactical nuclear mine with a capacity of two kilotons (3VB4) or neutron ("veil" or "tar").About chemical munitions is not known, but the radius of the combat use in active-reactive means delivery of up to ten thousand kilometers suggests that such an opportunity.
Which is better: "Tulip" or MLRS?
to deliver massive blows to the enemy in time of international conflicts of recent years in many countries, often used MLRS "Grad" BM-21.In this setting, a large number of advantages, including relatively low cost, simplicity, reliability and great striking power of a disadvantage, but a serious Apply surgical strike "Grad" can not.Its shells are uncontrollable, no devices for the correction of their design does not contain, but in general it is not for this system was created.If you want to hit the headquarters, communications center or other small object, it is best to cope with this task mortar "Tulip".Multiple rocket launchers work on the areas of its missiles "blind."To compare the two approaches to one and the same function can be represented fire suppression sword and dagger.Any of these types of bladed weapons may be needed, but each of them - their time.
This rate of "Tulip" for weapons with such a large mass of the munition is not so low, one shot per minute, which is five times faster than the prototype M-240.This is achieved through a unique rotary charging mechanism invented by Yu Tomaszow.
In those cases where a massive rocket and artillery preparation, it is difficult to use such sophisticated weapons as the "Tulip".Multiple rocket launchers "Hurricane" (or "Castle") will be effective, and range (up to 40 km), and the number issued per time unit shells.
Afghanistan after the invasion of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, the military leadership did not immediately appreciated the potential of this weapon.Among the objective reasons is the lack of practice and shooting skills in the mountains, when the levels in terms of fire and objectives vary considerably.Learning had during the fighting.In addition, it was felt that as such a large-scale war will not, and the troops soon after a brief and effective assistance to return to the USSR.There were problems with transportation in poor rocky road so heavy machinery, the system is "Tulip".The mortar, however, proved to be popular with time.From 588 guns manufactured before 1988, the Afghan war was attended by 120 units this technique.Used mainly conventional high-explosive fragmentation shells, but in some cases, at the required accuracy defeat artillery applied the "Braves" laser correction, the probability of a direct hit in the three-meter goal which comes to 90%.Special value system "Tulip" acquired during the storming of fortified areas, equipped fortresses or destruction of mining camps in caves.It had the value of the local context.The main material used by troops of anti-government forces for the construction of fortifications in Afghanistan were argillaceous rocks stone soft enough that they sank 122 mm howitzer shells, which are not broken and thus do not cause any harm defenders.Art.system "Tulip" produced its 240-millimeter 130-kilogram mine very strong destruction.And when you consider that more power is combined with precision shooting, the usefulness of these weapons seems to be quite reasonable.In Afghanistan, it was the first combat use.But, unfortunately, not the last.
Chechnya and other military campaigns
Among the many regional conflicts that erupted in the former Soviet Union soon after the collapse of the most dangerous for Russian statehood and its prospects were Chechen war.It started very badly, and was conducted with the use of almost all types of weapons, without complying with any whatsoever of proportionality.And conducted a propaganda war.After the destruction of his residence Dzhokhar Dudayev accused the federal troops in the use of nuclear weapons.In fact, of course, no atomic bombs Russian Army is not reset.At the palace fired system "Tulip".Photos of the ruins, however, could serve at a certain stretch propaganda illustration of this version of events.Mina broke through the roof, floor and all the floors in the basement exploded, producing a terrible roar.
During the second Chechen campaign, a precision weapons were used more widely.2S4 "Tulip" for the first two months of the enemy released more than a thousand minutes, including 60 laser-corrected and 40 cluster.
artillery and mortar system "Tulip" is unique, it has no analogues in the world practice of military affairs.Something similar is attempted at the end of World War II, the Americans set up, but once the project "stalled" after engineers have encountered a number of difficulties, and after Germany's surrender, the Pentagon has lost interest in the further development of a class of self-propelled heavy mortars.
The "Tulip" is, of course, disadvantages.The machine is heavy, her book is very conditional, because the mass of instruments is very high.The crew consists of five people in the event of a collision with a well-trained and armed commando group of anti-tank weapons of the enemy, it would be in a quandary.