Geology - the science of what?

"Geology - a way of life" - is likely to tell a geologist, responding to a question about his profession before moving on to the dry and boring wording, explaining that the geology - the science of the structure and composition of the earth, the history of itsbirth, formation and patterns of development, the once infinite, and now, alas, "estimated" the richness of its mineral resources.The other planets of the solar system is also an object of geological research.

description of a science often begin with the history of its origin and formation, oblivious to the fact that the story is full of confusing terms and definitions, so it's first on the merits.

Stages of geological studies

most common chart of a study in which you can "cram" all geological work aimed at identifying mineral deposits (the ISA), essentially as follows: geological survey (mapping outputon the surface of rocks and geological formations), prospecting, exploration, estimation of reserves, geological report.Shooting, prospe

cting and exploration, in turn, of course, divided into stages, depending on the scope of work and with regard to their appropriateness.

to perform such a complex work involved an army of professionals the widest range of geological disciplines, which currently geologist must possess much more than at the level of "a little of everything," because he is faced with the task to compile all this comprehensive information and eventually come to the openingdeposit (or do it), because the geology - a science that studies the bowels of the earth in the first place for the development of mineral resources.

family of Geological Sciences

Like other natural sciences (physics, biology, chemistry, geography and so on. D.), Geology is a set of interrelated and intertwined with each other disciplines.

directly to the geological items include general and regional geology, mineralogy, tectonics, geomorphology, geochemistry, lithology, paleontology, petrology, petrography, gemology, stratigraphy, historical geology, crystallography, hydrogeology, marine geology, volcanology and sedimentology.

to the application, methodical, technical, economic and other related geological sciences include engineering geology, seismology, rock physics, glaciology, geography, geology, minerals, geophysics, soil science, geodesy, oceanography, oceanology, geostatistics, geotechnology, geoinformatics, geotechnology, inventoryand land monitoring, land management, climatology, cartography, meteorology and atmospheric sciences series.

"Pure", field geology remains largely descriptive, it imposes on the artist a certain moral and ethical responsibility, so geology, developed their own language, like other sciences, is not without philology, logic and ethics.

Since the prospecting and exploration routes, especially in remote areas - is virtually uncontrollable work always exposed to the temptation of a geologist subjective, but wisely and beautifully presented to judgments or conclusions, and so, unfortunately, happens.Harmless "errors" can lead to very serious consequences in both research and production, as well as the material and economic terms, therefore, the geologist simply does not have the right to deception, distortion and error as a sapper and the surgeon.

backbone of geosciences built in a hierarchical series (geochemistry, mineralogy, crystallography, petrology, lithology, paleontology and the actual geology, including tectonics, stratigraphy and historical geology), reflecting the hierarchy of succession increasingly complex objects of study of atoms and molecules to Earthwhole.

Each of these sciences are widely branched in different directions, as well as its own geologists includes tectonics, stratigraphy and historical geology.

Geochemistry

In view of this science are issues of distribution of elements in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.

Modern geochemistry is a complex of scientific disciplines, including regional geochemistry, biogeochemistry and geochemical methods of exploration of mineral deposits.The subject of study for all these disciplines are the elements legal migration, conditions of concentration, separation and redeposition as well as the processes of evolution of the forms of each element or of several associations, especially with similar properties.

Geochemistry based on the properties and atomic structure and the crystalline material on data on the thermodynamic parameters characterizing part of the crust or a separate shell and on general patterns formed thermodynamic processes.

Direct problem geochemical studies in geology - detection of MPO, so exploration work on the ore minerals necessarily preceded and accompanied by a geochemical survey, the results of which are allocated ranges of scattering of useful component.

Mineralogy

One of the main and oldest sections of the geological sciences, exploring the vast, beautiful, extremely interesting and mysterious world of minerals.Mineralogical studies, goals, objectives and methods which depend on the specific tasks carried out at all stages of prospecting and exploration work and include a wide range of methods of visual estimation of the mineral composition to electron microscopy and X-ray diagnostics.

on shooting stages, prospecting and exploration MPO study is conducted to determine the mineralogy of search criteria and preliminary assessment of the practical significance of potential deposits.

During the exploration stage and geological work in the assessment of stocks of ore and non-metallic minerals established its full quantitative and qualitative mineral composition to identify useful and harmful contaminants for which data are taken into account when choosing a technology for processing or conclusion about the quality of raw materials.

addition to a comprehensive study of the composition of rocks, the main objectives are the study of mineralogy natural combination of minerals in natural associations and improving the principles of systematics of mineral species.

Crystallography

Once considered part of crystallography mineralogy, and a close link between the natural and obvious, but today it is an independent science with its own object and its own methods of research.Crystallography is the full investigation of the structure, physical and optical properties of crystals during their formation and characteristics of interaction with the environment, as well as changes occurring under the influence of a different nature.

science of crystals divided into physicochemical crystallography studies the laws governing the formation and growth of crystals, their behavior under different conditions depending on the shape and structure and geometric crystallography, the subject of which are the geometric laws governing the shape and symmetry of crystals.

Tectonics Tectonics is one of the core sections of geology that studies the structure of the crust in the structural plan, particularly its formation and development background multiscale motions, deformations, faults, and dislocations caused by the deep processes.

divided on regional tectonics, structural (morphological), historical and applied branches.

Regional Direction operates with such structures as the platform boards, panels, folded region, the depression of the seas and oceans, transform faults, rift zones, and so on. D.

As an example, the regional structural and tectonic plan, which is characterized by geology Russia.The European part of the country is located on the East-European platform, composed of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks.The area between the Urals and the Yenisey is located in the West Siberian platform.From the Yenisei to the Lena extends Siberian Platform (Central Siberian Plateau).Fold region presented the Ural-Mongolian, Pacific and partly Alpide belt.

Morphological Tectonics compared with the regional studies the structure of a lower order.

history of the origin and formation of the main types of structural forms of oceans and continents in a historic Geotectonics.

Applied direction tectonics associated with the identification of regularities of different types of ISA in connection with certain types of morphological structures and peculiarities of their development.

The "mercantile" geological sense faults in the earth's crust are regarded as rudopodvodyaschie channels and ore-controlling factors.

Paleontology

Meaning literally "the science of the ancient creatures', paleontology studies fossil organisms, their remains and traces of life, mainly for stratigraphic subdivision of the rocks of the crust.The competence of paleontology include the task of restoring paintings, reflecting the process of biological evolution on the basis of data received from the reconstruction image, the biological characteristics, methods of breeding and feeding of ancient organisms.

For obvious signs divided into paleozoology paleontology and paleobotany.

organisms are sensitive to changes in physical and chemical parameters of the environment, so they are reliable indicators of conditions in which the rocks were formed.This implies a close relationship of geology and paleontology.

On the basis of paleontological research in conjunction with the results of determinations of the absolute age of geological formations composed geochronological scale, in which the history of the Earth is divided into geological era (Archean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic).Era divided into periods, and those, in turn, is split into epochs.

We live in the Pleistocene (20,000 years ago to the present) the Quaternary period, which began about 1 million years ago.

petrography

study of the mineral composition of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, their textural and structural characteristics and genesis deals petrography (Petrology).Research is conducted using a polarizing microscope in polarized light rays passing.To do this, samples of rock cut thin (0,03-0,02 mm) of the plate (section), and then glued to a glass slide with Canada balsam (optical characteristics of the resin close to those of glass).

minerals become transparent (the majority), and their optical properties, the identification of minerals and rocks of the terms.Interference in thin section images resemble patterns in a kaleidoscope.

special place in the cycle of Geological Sciences takes petrography of sedimentary rocks.Her great theoretical and practical significance due to the fact that the subject of research are modern and ancient (fossil) rainfall, which occupy about 70% of the Earth's surface.

Engineering geology

Engineering Geology - the science of the features of the composition, physico-chemical properties, the formation, deposition and dynamics of the upper layers of the crust, which is related to economic, mainly engineering and construction activities of man.

Engineering and geological surveys aimed at the implementation of a comprehensive and integrated assessment of geological factors caused by human activities in relation to the natural geological processes.

If we remember that, depending on the method of governing science is divided into descriptive and accurate, then the engineering geology, of course, belongs to the latter, in contrast to many of his "colleagues in the shop."

Marine Geology

It would be unfair to ignore the extensive branch of geology that studies the geological structure and characteristics of the Earth's crust making up the bottom of the oceans and seas.If you follow the shortest and capacious definition, which characterize the geology (the study of the Earth), the marine geology - is the science of the sea (ocean) bottom, covering all branches of the "geological tree" (tectonics, petrography, lithology, historical and quaternary geology, paleogeography, stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry, geophysics, the doctrine of minerals, etc..).

Research in the seas and oceans are carried out with a specially-equipped ships, floating drilling rigs and pontoons (offshore).For sampling, in addition to drilling, used dredges, bottom grabs and clamshell-type direct-flow tube.With the help of autonomous vehicles and towed carried discrete and continuous photographic, television, seismic, magnetic and geolocation shooting.

Nowadays, many of the problems of modern science has not yet been resolved, and include the unsolved mysteries of the ocean and its subsoil.Marine Geology honored not only for the sake of science "to make clear the secret", but also to master the vast mineral resources of the oceans.

main theoretical problem of modern marine branch of geology is the study of the history of the oceanic crust and the identification of the main laws of its geological structure.

Historical Geology - the science of the laws governing the development of the crust and the planet as a whole in the historically foreseeable passed since its formation to the present day.Studying the history of the formation of the lithosphere structure is important because it occurring in the tectonic movements and deformations represent important factors contributing to most of the changes that occurred on Earth in the past geological era.

Now, an overview of the geology, you can refer to its origins.

Patrimony geosciences

difficult to say how far into history goes back thousands of years of geology, but Neanderthal knew of what make a knife or an ax, a flint or obsidian using (volcanic glass).

Ever since primitive man to the middle of the XVIII century lasted prescientific stage of accumulation and the formation of geological knowledge, mainly of metal ores, building stones, salts and groundwater.On the rocks, minerals and geological processes in the interpretation of the time talking in the ancient times.

the XIII century in Asia are being developed mountain crafts and foundations originate ore mining and knowledge.

In the Renaissance (XV-XVI centuries.) Approved by the heliocentric view of the world (John. Bruno, Galileo, Copernicus), born geological representation N. Stenona, Leonardo da Vinci and G. Bauer and formulated cosmogonicalconcept of Descartes and Leibniz.

In the period of geology as a science (XVIII-XIX centuries.) Appeared cosmogonic hypotheses P. Laplace and Kant and geological ideas of Lomonosov, Buffon.Born stratigraphy (I. Lehmann, G. Fyuksel) and Paleontology (JB Lamarck, W. Smith), significantly developing crystallography (RJ HaĆ¼y, MV Lomonosov), mineralogy (JJ Berzelius,A. Cronstedt, VM Severgin, KF Moos et al.), geological mapping begins.

During this period created the first geological society and the national geological service.

Since the second half of the XIX to the beginning of XX century the most significant events were the geological observations of Charles Darwin, the doctrine of the creation of platforms and geosynclines, the emergence of paleogeography, petrology development tool, genetic and theoretical mineralogy, the emergence of the concepts of the magma and the doctrine of the ore deposits.Geology of oil began to emerge and gain momentum geophysics (magnetometry, gravimetry, seismometers and Seismology).In 1882 it was founded the Geological Committee of Russia.

modern period of development of geology began in the mid XX century, when the science of the world has adopted computer technology and acquired new laboratory instruments, tools and technical means possible to start geological and geophysical study of the oceans and the nearest planets.