Among the existing five kingdoms of nature are in a special position mushrooms.They have unusual features characterizing them as unique, original, but very important and useful for nature and human organisms.Features of the structure and activity of fungi, and we will try to consider the article to understand what is their originality.
to the kingdom of fungi is more than 100 of their species.And among them you can find a variety of forms by the method of supply:
lower unicellular and multicellular organisms higher data structures are widespread in nature and occupy an important place in the organic world.Do not overlook fungi and humans, as organisms that come into contact with them, not only externally, but at the cellular level, inside (parasitic fungi, Candida).
big role in people's lives plays a special class of Basidiomycetes or fungi pileate.After all, the vast majority of them - is edible species used by man as a valuable nutritional product for many millennia.
From a biological point of view, deserves special attention is the structure of the fungus, which has a number of related features of both plant and animals organisms.Although outwardly it is more close to the plant kingdom.In general, the circuit structure of the fungus is simple: if a single-celled organism, it consists of a noncellular mycelium and hyphae with sporangia and spores.If we are talking about the highest representative, if such structural parts:
- mycelium (mycelium) - the underground part;
- hyphae, interwoven in an elevated part of the body in the form of fruit;
There are those who are a cross between the lower and higher fungi in the structure and way of life.
modern taxonomy has 7 main classes, combined into three divisions.The structure and vital functions for fungi each have their own characteristics and properties.Let us examine them in detail.
The vast majority of these organisms - it is parasitic and saprophytic forms used to plant life, animal rights, food, household items.These include three classes:
- Chytridiomycota - inhabitants of fresh and salt water.Parasitic on algae, can also eat saprotrophic, decomposing remains of plant and animal tissues.Is a single-celled structure.The structural features of such fungal species - that the cells have multiple protuberances - rizomitselii serving for attachment to the substrate and to move in the water column.Representatives chytrid, monoblefarisovye, spizellomitsetovye, rizofidievye organisms.
- Oomycetes - very dangerous parasites of higher plants as well as water mold shape.The structure represented by the fungus mycelium multicore non-cellular, reproduction occurs through mobile zoospores.The presence of cellulose in the cell wall of said plant in proximity to a greater extent than other fungi.Representatives of Phytophthora, peronospory and others.Not only cause rotting plant parts, but the disease of marine life, sometimes destroying entire crops.
- Zygomycota - the inhabitants of the soil and air, unicellular complicated shapes.More details will be discussed on the example of the bright representative - Mucor.
- Gifohitridiomitsety - intermediate forms in the structure and way of life are between Oomycetes and Chytridiomycetes.
This category includes more developed advanced forms of the three classes:
- Ascomycetes - valuable in medical practice mushrooms.Build implies the presence of mycelium, multicellular, septate and quite highly developed.Also, its name (marsupials), these mushrooms have received for original bags, deepening or asci, which mature sexual spores - ascospores.The present structure of the hyphae, which are formed at the ends of conidia involved in reproduction.Representatives yeast, Penicillium, Aspergillus and others.I appreciated the fact that many species are able to produce antibiotics.
- deuteromycetes or imperfect fungi.Most representatives of the genus Candida counts that causes the same name of the disease in humans and animals.Hit the tissues and organs.Do not have this spawn only psevdostrukturu.Multiply, forming chlamydospores.
- Basidiomycetes or shlyapochnye form.The structure of the fungus this class will be discussed in more detail below.
similarity with other organisms
structure of the cells of plants, animals, fungi have a number of common features.That is why until now not definitively decided whether to allocate the organism in question in a separate kingdom and still combine with plants or animals.
thing is that there are a number of features that are similar to fungi species of flora:
- capacity for unlimited growth throughout life.
- Fungal cells have thick cell walls, as well as plants.
- breeding methods are similar: with the help of spores and parts of mycelia, that is vegetatively.
- Inability to move in space.
- absorption of nutrients absorption method.
However, in contrast to those who are on these grounds relates to the lower plants, fungi, should bring a number of evidence of not less similarity of these organisms to animals:
- The cell wall contains polysaccharides - chitin.Although the same material forms the exoskeleton of crustaceans and some insects.
- The waste products of fungi have been found traces of uric acid.
- reserve nutrients from these organisms - glycogen as a human.
- By way the absorption of nutrients is heterotrophic organisms since their cages has been detected chlorophyll.
Thus, it is obvious that all the mushrooms - this is a separate kingdom, with its specific features.
structure of the cells of the fungus
The above similarities and differences with other living organisms are also reflected in the structure into smaller cellular level.For example, fungal cells have a number of the following features:
- outside it separated the cell wall in plants.However, substances that are part of this structure shows that there are more similarities with animals.Components: chitin (in some species cellulose) glycan, polysaccharides, monosaccharides, heteropolymers.Over time, this structure can ossify, accumulating calcium oxalate salt, then the mycelium appearance and body are solid, resembling the stem of plants.In some cases, the cell wall is covered with mucus from the outside.
- Next is the standard structure of the plasma membrane - liquid-mosaic formation consisting of bilipidnogo layer penetrating proteins and built for different purposes.Functions of the membrane the same as that of the higher organisms, - provision of active and passive transport into the cell and out.
- Under the plasma membrane is protoplast comprising the vacuole, the nucleus with nucleoli, cytoplasm and organelles hyaloplasm.
- vacuoles with cell sap - is absolute similarity to the plant cell.During the life-changing amount and size of these structures.In adult cell has one big vacuole parietal filled with a solution containing polyphosphates, carbohydrates, nutrients organic molecules.
- core and the nucleolus is often available in a single copy.Located closer to the center of the cell and serve for storing and transmitting genetic information in the form of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA).Interestingly the structure of the cells of the fungus that nucleus fission mitosis doubled, but not immediately divided into two cells transverse constriction.Therefore, some time in the structure of the fungus can detect dual-core and trinuclear education.
- is hyaloplasm cytoplasm and cell organelles.The liquid medium dissolved carbohydrates arranged inclusion glycogen grow microfilaments formed cytoskeleton.By organelles are mitochondria, ribosomes, dictyosomes.Talking about the features of the structure of the fungus, it is worth mentioning lomasomah.This translucent corpuscles, whose role is not yet clear.
Thus, fungal cells has features in common with both the animal and with vegetation.However, it includes and narrowly specific components.
unicellular fungi: Mucor
Representatives have seen this kind of probably everything.White fluffy mold appearing on foods, fruits and vegetables, stale plant and animal tissues - this fungi Mucor class Zygomycota.
Externally to the naked eye look fluffy rug.Over time, it darkens and becomes bluish, gray.This occurs when ripe spores in sporangia when mold was grown and prepares for reproduction.
molds Mucor structure is quite simple.Firstly, all of it - one large cell structure, and it is unicellular.Just mycelium - multicore, but without walls, heavily branched.One gets the impression of a multicellular organism, but it is not.
hyphae of the fungus grow straight up and at the end of form sporangia, more spherical, which mature spores.Another name Mucor - capitate mold.It was given to them because of this structure and arrangement of spore-bearing structures.
After maturation tiny cells spill out of the ruptured sporangium germination and begin self into a new form.Also available, and sexual process - it also produces molds Mucor.The structure of the relevant organs represents one or semitransparent strands of different orders, which are connected to form a zygote.It then gives a new Gifu with sporangium, which is an independent body.
Such a structure of the fungus does not make it harmful to humans.Of course some formulations may cause mucormycosis animals and humans, however, the positive value of this class is also large.For example, they are valuable drug producers - ramitsina.Also possess high enzyme activity makes it possible to use them in the role of the yeast ferments the preparation of certain types of alcohols, cheese and so forth.
multicellular fungi: Basidiomycetes
This class has more than 31.5 million different representatives.Among them there as parasites and symbionts.The most interesting group consists of edible fungus called pileate.Such representatives of the kingdom shall enter into mutually beneficial cooperation with the roots of trees, forming a so-called mycorrhiza - a dense interweaving of fungal hyphae and plant roots.Of course, so do not all representatives, but those that are edible, fall into this category.
avilable pileate fungus lies in the fact that it is multicellular, perfect, having certain body parts, which are its hallmarks.Thus, each such representative has elevated and underground part.
external structure consists of a mushroom cap forming different shapes, fruit and massive legs of unequal length, and the underground part - mycorrhiza, consisting of mycelium and hyphae together with the roots of trees.
Probably everyone who has ever walked through the forest, he could see the colorful delicate mushroom caps peeking out intertwining foliage and forest floor.White, red, orange, yellow, brown, small and big, meaty and flavorful, delicious and very nutritious - these organisms have become part of people's lives and make a certain part of the diet of most of them.
outside can see only very fruiting body, but the structural features pileate fungus can only be understood in the more subtle analysis section and microscope.
stump hat mycelium (mycelium) - are the main structural parts of Representatives.The structure of the fruiting body of the fungus is different.Rather, they differ in size and color, as well as some features of the cap.Inside that leg that hat - a dense interweaving of fungal hyphae in various combinations.
For foot contains hundreds of thousands of the finest threads of closely woven into the overall structure.In the lower part it smoothly into mycelium hidden underground.If you cut the mushroom very carefully, you can see the thin white thread-like appendages that extend from the ground and growing into a tree stump.
At the top, just below the cap, stipe is covered with the remains of his or reduction in some species.This feature allows you to distinguish between edible and poisonous species, as well as organize and classify them.
upper part of the stalk crowned hat.It lies feature.Structure pileate mushroom shape to distinguish edible from poisonous.Thus, the cap comes in two types:
- The plate - represents the inside of the small plates, which are arranged and mature debate.Examples of organisms volnushki, russula, mushrooms.
- Tube - formed tubes, visible to the naked eye.In these structures also develop spores for reproduction.Examples: boletus, mushrooms, aspen, chanterelles.
This structure hats and sporangia called Hymenophore.Outside cap covered with a thin and delicate layer of skin, which is a well inside the hyphae.It just has a different color, on which you can judge the form of a mushroom.
mycelium mycelium - a very important part, which is formed by fungi.Build a hyphae, as we have already mentioned.But mycelium - a multi-elongated cells lacking any pigment.
It mycelium enter into symbiosis with tree roots and holds on to a tree outgrowths mitseliynym minerals and water.In return, the fungus obtains from the plant organic substances, which makes it heterotrophs by the method of supply.
structure pileate fungus spores reproduction means.However, if it enters the mycelium normal conditions (good humidity, temperature) can itself give rise to a new fruit bodies.Therefore boldly called mycelium body vegetative propagation.
These tiny structures, which in a large mass is a powder of different colors, are the main source of reproduction of fungi.Emptying of the sporangia on the cap, they are picked up and carried by the wind over long distances.Many animals, eating mushrooms, can not digest their disputes, so the output with the faeces into the environment.Here future shlyapochnye species get a chance to live in the case of establishment and germination of spores.The shape, size and color of these cells identify most species of fungi, correlating them with one or another class.
In conclusion, I want to say that the representatives of the kingdom of fungi - are very important organisms, affecting entire ecosystems that make up the food chain, causing irreparable harm to living beings, but also give us the antidote to many diseases.