Siege of Leningrad lasted 872 days.During this time of famine killed more than one million people.After the end of World War II passed the Nuremberg trials of Nazi and fascist criminals.
representatives of the USSR have indicted the commander of the German Army Group "North", because of the actions that killed a number of civilians in the besieged city.On this charge, General von Leeb was acquitted.While the Geneva Conventions have not yet been spelled out the item under which would be forbidden to use hunger as a military strategy against the civilian population.
survivors in the besieged city owe the appearance of motorway ("The Road of Life") across Lake Ladoga.It was she allowed to break the blockade ring, because due to its geographical position, Leningrad is not able to survive without food deliveries.
value paved the way
Worked road from autumn 1941 to spring 1943.Her appointment was due to the siege of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) with the country.Officially it was called the military highway № 101.
Since September 1941, Soviet troops together with the civilians were surrounded by German and Finnish troops.The city was not prepared for a blockade and had no adequate supply of food and fuel.Deliver all required aircraft could or across the lake.
«Road of Life" across Lake Ladoga allowed the evacuation of the population and partly to provide survivors with food.
Moving on ice
Since October 1941, the study for the construction of the road across Lake Ladoga, in the winter it is covered with ice.After preliminary calculations, construction began in November.It was assumed that the width of the highway will be 10 meters to the car can move simultaneously in both directions.Every 5-7 kilometers constructed special items for heating.
Direction road was chosen based on the availability of durable ice.He had to withstand heavy loads.The main mode of transport was the GAZ-AA, called by the people "polutorka."In order to prevent massive failures of the ice between the machines had to be a minimum distance of 100 meters.At the same time across the lake was laid railway line.
create a "road of life" (Leningrad) was held not far from the front line, she demanded protection that provide military units.Ice road section had two defensive strip by using a wooden frame, sand bags, which promorazhivalis ice.Every one to two kilometers were installed anti-aircraft guns, and every three kilometers - a small-caliber artillery guns.From the air pipe defended Six Fighter Wing.
During the first winter of the siege on the "Road of Life" was evacuated more than 500,000 people and delivered approximately 250 thousand tons of food.Basically it was flour, grains, cereals, meat, fats, vegetables, nuts, dried fruit, vitamin C. The work continued ice road in the winter 1942-1943 year.
Trucking in water
With the melting of the ice road over Lake Ladoga not ceased to exist.In the spring of 1942 gave way to transport the ice navigation on the water.However, due to the fact that the ice was still in some areas, a break between deliveries across the lake made for a month.In April, on the ice to transport the goods have been impossible, and the water barge could go only to the end of May.
Guide country had to carry out work to restore the damaged vessels.In the operating state it was not more than 15 barges.We decided to build the barges in place.A platform for the work was the pulp and paper mill in Syasstroy.At the same time in the Leningrad began construction of metal ships that transported for final assembly by rail.
Guard path engaged antiaircraft artillery divisions, regiments-destroyers.They had to fight against the forces of the Finno-German-Italian fleet.
During 1942 the water was evacuated about 400 thousand inhabitants, delivered food to 350 thousand tons.At the same time the city was delivered 290 thousand soldiers.In addition to products and petroleum products in the city it was brought cattle and horses.
Since April 1943 continued trucking across the lake.Although their number has decreased as a significant part of the goods have been transported by rail, which was started in 1942.
Was the "Road of Life" (Leningrad) alone?
official route is considered a way of Kokoreva Kobona to the lake.This thread linked the big city to the country.This information can be found in textbooks and itinerary for tourists.However, there are data by which the "road of life" across Lake Ladoga took a different path.The existence of other lines for the transportation shown by many facts.
Inconsistency in calculations
confirmation of the existence of several roads are simple calculations.So for the first winter road blockades worked 150 days.It was officially forwarded about 350 thousand tons of cargo.It turns out that for one day in Leningrad delivered 2,400 tons.
transport cargo "lorry" in the body which can be loaded and a half tons.Another half a ton could attach to the sled.That is for one flight laden to capacity machine could translate two tons.Every day in 1200 crossed the road fully loaded "polutorok."However, they had to move in both directions.
ice could not survive such an attack.Especially that in addition to the trucks on the highway cruising and buses that have taken over the 150 days of around half a million civilians.Also on Ladoga transported tanks, from which shot weapon towers to facilitate weight loss.Hardly a blockade "road of life" would sustain such loads, all the more so as the road played ice.
Riddle sunken truck
During transport the ice took about a thousand cars.Many of them are now under water.When the water in the lake is particularly clear, pilots visually capture the outlines of lorries.Are they not always on the official route of the track.Some of them are located hundreds of kilometers from the well-known to all the "Road of Life."
There are documents from which it is clear that some drivers withdrew from the route, to cash in on the transportation and pour some of the load.However, such cases were not so many, and truck wrecks away from the road, there were many hundreds.So the question of whether the Leningrad provided Ladoga lake only by a single road, rather controversial.
reasons for the existence of several routes
Official road ("road of life" across Lake Ladoga) № 101 Kokoreva -Kobona certainly existed and operated.However, the calculations and the location of many sunken truck say that it could not be the only one.
All maps and documents in the case have long been classified and stored in special archives.Perhaps this is due to the desire to secrecy not to reveal all paths in the event of another war.
reasons for which could be several routes:
- danger from German aircraft. overwhelming superiority of the German air the winter of 1941 was undeniable.Designating the way across the lake, the Germans bombed it regularly.To minimize losses from air raids, it was necessary to change the route.The first lines were laid close to the shores of the lake, but as strong in the ice, the route was carried out closer to the center.
- Ice did not maintain a constant load. witnesses of those years show that the road could pass only 60-70 cars.Further, the ice begins to crack, for his recovery took time.So the movement was to move to a new path.Otherwise Leningrad could not get that amount of cargo.
Creating a railway line
With large cargo transportation in the state could handle only railroad.By 1942, on the eastern shore of the lake has been placed line.It is possible to increase the cargo.Thanks to all these methods of Leningrad blockade has been partially lifted.
memory of torn encircled
to maintain the health of the ice cover were involved hundreds of thousands of people.They lived on the ice, filling the resulting cracks, damaged wooden planks.The feat of these people, as well as the drivers themselves, it is difficult to estimate the real thing.The cost of the lives of many of them was to lift the blockade.Lake Ladoga was the yield, which allowed to break the ring of death for many innocent civilians.
along the land plot from Leningrad to the Ladoga are monuments that are dedicated to "the Road of Life."All of them are part of a memorial to the "Green Belt of Glory", which stretches for many kilometers.Memorial consists of seven monuments, commemorative pillars 46 on the highway, 56 columns by rail.
most memorable monuments are 40 and 103 km highway.The first is the memorial "Broken Ring" (architect Filippov VG), which symbolizes the siege of the ring gap formed by the German-Finnish troops of Leningrad in the autumn of 1941.On the 103 kilometer a monument "The legendary lorry" (architect Levenkov AD).He portrays a machine that goes, breaking ice.