History knows a lot of documents, the signing of which affected whole nations.Important among them are several bills signed by England and the United States, which will be discussed.
Bill in England
Bill of Rights in 1689 - a constitutional act, which was adopted by the UK government, and fundamentally influenced the way of development of parliamentary monarchy in the country.He became a legal expression of the Glorious Revolution, which resulted from the throne was deposed James II Stuart, and was replaced by the new monarch - William III of Orange.In order to avoid uprisings against the new government, the king agreed to the signing of the Declaration of Rights, which took place February 13, 1689.Through this document, the monarch acknowledged the Lords and Commons, and later on its basis was established the Bill of Rights.
Bill affected the crown and the people?
main innovations mentioned in documents relating to the ratio of the powers of the monarch, and who now had to submit to acts of Parliament.The king was deprived of the opportunity to abolish the laws of Parliament concerning penalties and suspend other laws without the consent of Parliament.This led to the fact that the king no longer has the highest authority in the legislative area, in addition, its powers in the sphere of justice made more limited.There have also been introduced severe restrictions on the interaction between the crown and the church.Since the entry into force of the bill was a monarch is unable to collect taxes on the needs of the people and the maintenance of the army in peacetime, and the courts were closed for church affairs.The funds required for the maintenance of the royal court and the army, stood out only a short time, because of which the monarch was forced all the time to apply for grants.
What else changed the bill?
In addition, thanks to the innovations Parliament received more powers.Now the king was obliged to hold convocations of Parliament not less than once in three types, and members of parliament obtained though conventional, but still freedom of speech.The changes were made and the electoral law.The Bill of Rights prohibited the involvement of candidates loyal to the throne.In addition, a document proclaiming the possibility of filing petitions, as well as the freedom of parliamentary debate.The new law also defines the principles of representation in parliament, which is calculated in proportion to the taxes paid.Although in reality the right to vote could be given only major bourgeois and aristocrats.
Bill and the judiciary
special subsections of the document on the rights relating to the powers of the judiciary.They determined that the courts can not resort to very high bail, fines, or even cruel punishments.No longer was the legitimate practice of artificial selection jury, which could be used to influence the decision of the court.
However, the competence of jury trials has increased, it has been proved to be right to consider any violation of recognized cases of treason.Nevertheless, it is prohibited and confiscation of personal property, even arrested pending the jury charge.Thus, the bill was intended to stop judicial tyranny.
Bill of Rights did not claim, however, direct parliamentary government, but the king still had the right to elect and dismiss ministers and judges, as well as the ability to convene and dissolve the parliament.However, the actual document marked the introduction of an updated regime in England constitutional monarchy.
Bill of Rights, 1791
this name are the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution, adopted in 1789, which entered into force in 1791.It was a document greatly expands the rights of ordinary people.Thanks to him, proclaimed freedom of speech, assembly, press, security of person, freedom of religion, and many other important postulates.This document has become the most important turning point in the history of the new state, which provided personal political rights and freedoms of residents of the United States.Bill of Human Rights was able to end the absolute power of the monarch and the government, which were very common during the early Middle Ages in Europe and in the era of absolutism.
main provisions of the new bill were based on such a document as the Magna Carta, signed by Britain in 1215, through which significantly limits the ability of the king.The most important point of the document - the integrity of the individual - was first formalized in other British documents - Habeas Corpus Act, which was signed on 27 May 1679.
War of Independence
After the Revolution of 1688 were formalized and other rights and freedoms.When the US began the war for independence, a number of similar documents signed.All of them are in some way summed up the fact that it had been previously.For example, the Virginia Bill of Rights.However, during the war, guarantees of the rights have not been provided to the opponents of independence.
Bill of Rights, and the United States had some drawbacks.So, despite the fact that the federal authorities now has a strong power, the citizens were not protected from their tyranny.Therefore, James Madison proposed an amendment to the constitution of some amendments.Bill came into effect only when the Virginia, a former 11th out of 14 that existed at the time the state completely accepted and ratified it in their territory.Initially, he was treated solely as a law that would protect citizens from unlawful actions of the federal authorities.Thus, the 14th Amendment, adopted in 1866, call whites and African Americans, which previously could infringe on rights.Later, in 1873, we decided to cancel, considering it unacceptable, however in 1925 it re-entered into force because it has been issued a decree forbidding the states to make laws that restrict or in any way infringe upon the rights and liberties of US citizens.
most important points of the bill is considered to be the 1st amendment, which provides for freedom of the press, speech and assembly.It is at the top right of US citizens and various associations.According to the 2nd amendment, acknowledged that states may have a militia, and people have the right to keep and carry arms for their own security.Now there are disputes over this point, because the opponents of free sale seek to cancel it.3rd Amendment, which prohibits soldiers living in private households in the period of peace, today more irrelevant.The Bill of Rights, in particular the 4th amendment ensures the inviolability of property and person, that is, prohibits any searches by law enforcement agencies without proper permission.According to the 5th paragraph of the document introduced trial by jury, and you can not make a person become a witness against himself.Three subsequent amendments directly related to the proceedings.9th paragraph specifies that you can not take away people's rights, which it already enjoys, and the 10th, in turn, argues that the rights of the state that have not been transferred to the federal government, remain unaffected.
International Bill of Human Rights
This series of documents, the totality of which is to ensure the rights and freedoms of all people on the planet.The rules contained in these documents is a fundamental principle of international standards of the United Nations human rights.All states that have signed the International Bill of Rights, undertake to provide its citizens a number of rights and freedoms that should be provided to all equally without any discrimination.
All documents referred to above, one way or another influenced the present situation of human rights.The first bill, passed in England, in fact, marked the beginning of a parliamentary monarchy, which allowed to limit the power of the monarch, and was actually the first step on the road to democracy.More than revolutionary, from this point of view was the American bill, which is already guaranteed the people are not only equal rights in the society, but also prohibit any discrimination, but it has not yet become final point on the path to a free society.The pinnacle of democracy, of course, was a series of documents adopted at the United Nations, which were based on all previously created, but they were, so to speak, are represented in the present, which have helped them to provide everyone in the world equal rights and freedoms.