Formation electrode industry, maintenance and expansion of the industry is possible only in the countries with developed economies.The first state created by this sector were Germany, USA, Japan.Behind them the production of electrodes began in the Soviet Union.
production of electrodes is one of the most important economic sectors.It provides economic independence of the state.The electrode industry serves as an integral part of heavy industry - ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, aviation, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics, atomic energy and many other industries.In this case you should give an example of Japan.During the crisis, the country, eliminating the production of aluminum by redirecting resources to the preservation and development of electrode industry.As a result, today there are more than 100 companies in this sector.Domestic manufacturers, despite the significant difficulties associated with the reduction of consumption of products, continue to be at the leading position among the CIS countries.Currently on the market to create a sufficiently tough competition between foreign and Russian manufacturers.Under these conditions, in the first place put forward two main circumstances.The first value is the product cost.She, in turn, affects the allowable minimum selling price.The second factor - the quality of which have electrodes for welding units for ovens, structural graphite, and other products.In this case, the question is, what are the concrete results of their use - what is the specific consumption, will serve as the product.
main component of cost and quality
The formation of these indicators is influenced by many factors.Among them are the costs of transportation, materials, process fuel, labor, electricity and so on.These costs account for over 80% of production costs.Raw material for the electrode industry is one of the most important factors.It affects not only the cost price, but also on product quality.In this regard, the raw material base of the industry serves as one of the indicators of economic and technological competitiveness.
Structure of consumption of materials
It is determined in accordance with the nomenclature of the main manufactured products in Russia.In particular, domestic producers:
- Graphite electrodes for electric furnaces.
- carbon and graphite cathode blocks.
- electrodes and the mass for the production of silicon and aluminum.
- structural graphite for various industries.
- electrodes for arc welding and so on.
main raw materials
Domestic enterprises use a variety of materials.The most common are considered:
- Petroleum coke.It can be an ordinary or a special quality.
- Shale coke and needle structure.
- Technological anthracite.
- Coal tar pitch.
Difficulties with materials
Today in Russia there are no companies producing low-sulfur petroleum coke.About 200 thousand. Tonnes of raw material has appeared outside of the country in Turkmenistan, where the release of his for some reason declined.Today relevant option is the creation of gidroochistnyh plants for raw coking refineries.This will provide the release of a material with a reduced sulfur content in the Russian territory.But the realization of projects for the deep processing of oil and this is necessary for the reconstruction of many refineries imply reductions of raw material for coking.Material needle structure is purchased mainly abroad.The main suppliers are the United States and Japan.It is the raw material for the electrode, and the domestic industry produces Novoufimsky refinery.This enterprise showed the real possibilities and the required volume and quality of production.First produced by experienced and then the industrial batch of material.Issue volume left 1.5 thousand. Tonnes.Today, he is dependent on regular supplies of low-sulfur oil deficit.Some companies show quite stable results for the production of materials.Thus, in recent years it has stabilized to some extent, the quality of coal tar pitch.However, not all companies involved arranged production of material grades of "A" and "B".It is the raw material for the electrode industry is of special importance, which is reflected in the number of orders it.Not noted in the issue of stability and other important materials.For example, this applies to pyrolysis pitches that can act as an additive in coal.The individual process steps, these components are essential.No release of high temperature coal tar pitch (brand "T").It is necessary to obtain some type of carbon structural materials.
status of domestic enterprises
decreased attention to the problem of raw material supply for the electrode industry caused a shortage of the carbonaceous material and an increase in imports - from 35 to 100%.So, late preparation of cuts and quarries Kolyvansky technological anthracite deposit, located in the Novosibirsk region, and lag stripping work more than 5 years, have caused a sharp reduction in mining and milling of raw materials.Significant changes have taken place in the supply of materials for the production of structural graphites.In connection with the termination of production of the pyrolysis coke in 1992-94.sharply reduced their volume.The resulting acute problem of finding alternative materials require immediate solution.Moscow Electrode Plant, and after him and NEZ (Novocherkassk plant) began to research and work on the development of manufacturing techniques of structural graphites.To this end, cooperation has been established to combine shale in Estonia.
Achievements of Russian companies
Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant later also engaged in similar work.The studies were launched new lines at the plant.As a result, CEZ issued a batch of different brands on the basis of structural graphite pitch coke.Material for their supply of domestic enterprises.The characteristics of the graphite correspond to those made using the petroleum coke.Thus, the problem was solved supply different grades of material of wide application.In addition, the restored production and shipping on nuclear power production from structural graphite required for the construction and repair of RBMK units.To complete the development of pitch coke serving as filler in structural graphite, it is necessary to perform certain technological and technical measures in the process of preparation and training.
In the production of all types of carbon and graphite materials are used natural and artificial ingredients.The main component in their favor carbon.Among the natural materials should be made natural graphite and anthracite.Artificial components, however, make up the bulk of the carbonaceous material.Various forms a main ingredient materials produced by decomposition of organic compounds.They may be formed from a liquid or gas phase.Also, they may receive during the decomposition of solid compound.From the gas phase are formed, for example, certain grades of carbon black from the liquid, in turn - petroleum cokes.The starting material and the processing method has a decisive effect on the characteristics of the final product.
All raw materials for the electrode industry can be divided into 2 groups: solid carbonaceous components and binders.Consider them.
1. Anthracite.It acts as the main component of coal blocks and electrodes used in the masonry and lining baths, ovens and so on. The main requirements are to anthracite:
- low sulfur content.
- Thermal resistance.
- low ash content.
- mechanical strength.
- high electrical conductivity.
Application anthracite compositions improves product performance, especially its thermal conductivity.
2. Cox.This is one of the most important components for electro and electrode industry.Today issued two kinds of material.The first - oil - is produced by the coking of petroleum residues.Its properties depend on the type of starting material.The production of this kind carried out in 2 ways.According to a first carbonization is carried out in heated metal cubes.The second way - the slow process in the unheated cells.The second type is obtained by processing coal tar pitch.
This component is used in the majority of carbon-graphite materials.With the introduction of graphite into the mass improves its ductility reduced internal and external friction.This allows denser electrodes for welding and other products.Even a small amount of graphite (4-6%) has a positive effect on the product properties.In particular, it increases the heat resistance and heat conductivity.The main parameters that determine the quality graphite grades, are the size distribution and the ash content.However, they are sufficient only when it comes to deposit a certain material and method of manufacture.For the same value of the index graphites of different origins may differ in other properties.
Slow method of producing coke is now considered the most popular.The essence of this process is that the material is preheated to 500 degrees, is pumped into the reactors are isolated from the outside unheated.According to various circuits in the unit can be set from 2 to 4 reactors.The temperature in them is 470-480 degrees, and the pressure - up to 1.7 atm.The unit is designed to fill in during the day.After his trip the reactor filled with steamed.It is necessary for stripping the material from petroleum distillate fractions.They, in turn, are sent to a fractionator.