Information about comets.

click fraud protection

Since ancient times, people have sought to uncover the secrets that conceals the sky.Since the establishment of the first telescope, scientists have step by step collect the nuggets of knowledge that are hidden in the boundless expanses of space.It's time to find out where did the messengers from outer space - comets and meteorites.

What is a comet?

If we examine the word "comet", we arrive to its ancient Greek equivalent.Literally it means "long hair."Thus, the name was given because of the structure of the celestial body.Comet has a "head" and a long "tail" - a sort of "hair".The head of the comet consists of a nucleus and perinuclear materials.The loose structure of the nucleus can include water as well as gases such as methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide.The same structure of the comet Churyumov has - Gerasimenko, opened October 23, 1969.

as comets were previously

In ancient times, our ancestors have worshiped it, and invented various superstitions.Even now, there are those who associate the appearance of comets with something elusive and mysterious.Such people may think that this stranger from another world of souls.Where did such a panic?Maybe it's the fact that the appearance of these heavenly creatures ever coincided with some unkind incident.

However, as time went on, and changing perceptions of what is a small and large comet.For example, a scientist such as Aristotle, exploring their nature, decided that this glowing gas.Through time, another philosopher named Seneca, who lived in Rome, has suggested that a comet - it is in heaven, the body moving in their orbits.However, to truly advance in their study came only after the creation of the telescope.When Newton discovered the law of gravity, it went up.

current ideas about comets

Today scientists have discovered that comets are composed of a solid core (from 1 to 20 km thick).What is the core of a comet?From the mixture of frozen water and cosmic dust.In 1986, pictures were taken of one of the comets.It became clear that its fiery tail - is emission flow of gas and dust, which we can observe from the Earth's surface.For some reason, there is this "fire" emissions?If an asteroid flies very close to the Sun, while its surface is heated, resulting in the emission of dust and gas.Solar energy is putting pressure on the solid material that makes up the comet.This results in a fiery tail of dust.These fragments and dust are a part of the track, which we see in the sky when there is movement of comets.

What determines the shape of the tail of the comet

message about comets, presented below, will help to better understand what comets and how they work.They are different - from the tails of all shapes.It's all in the natural composition of the particles that make up a particular tail.Very small particles quickly fly away from the sun, and those that are a little more, on the contrary, seek to star.What is the reason?It turns out that the first move, pushed by solar energy, off, and in the second act the gravitational force of the sun.As a result of these physical laws we get comet tails which are curved in different ways.Those tails are largely made up of gas, will be sent from the star, and corpuscular (consisting mainly of dust), by contrast, tend to the sun.What can we say about the density of the comet's tail?Generally cloud tails can be measured in millions of kilometers in some cases hundreds of millions.This means that, unlike the body of the comet, its tail is increasingly discharged from the particles without practically any density.When an asteroid approaches the Sun, the comet's tail can be split in two and purchase a complex structure.

speed of the particles in the comet tail

measure the speed of movement in the tail of the comet is not so easy, since we can not see individual particles.However, there are times when the rate of motion of matter in the tail can be determined.Sometimes there may condense the gas cloud.In their motion can calculate the approximate speed.So, the forces driving the comet is so great that the speed can exceed 100 times the pull of the sun.

How heavy comet

entire mass of comets largely depends on the weight of the head of a comet, or rather, its nucleus.Presumably, a small comet can weigh a few tons.Whereas, according to the forecasts, the big asteroids can reach a weight of 1 000 000 000 000 tons.

What meteors

Sometimes some of the comet passes through the orbit of the Earth, leaving a trail of debris.When our planet passes in the place where it was a comet, the debris and space dust, the rest of it, with great speed enter the atmosphere.This speed comes to more than 70 kilometers per second.When the fragments of the comet burn up in the atmosphere, we can see a beautiful trail.This phenomenon is known as a meteor (or meteorite).

Age comets

Fresh huge asteroids can survive in space billions of years.However, the comet, like any cosmic body can not exist forever.The more they approach the Sun, the more loose solid and gaseous substances in their composition."Young" comets may be very relieving weight as long as their surface is not formed a kind of protective crust that prevents further evaporation and burning.However, "young" comet is getting older, and the kernel grows old and loses its weight and dimensions.Thus the surface crust gets a lot of wrinkles, cracks and faults.Gas flow, burning, pushing the body of the comet on and on, giving the speed of the traveler.

Comet Halley

other comets, the structure is the same as the comet Churyumov and - Gerasimenko, an asteroid opened Edmund Halley.He realized that there are long-period comets have elliptical orbits in which they move with a long interval of time.He compared each other comets that have been observed on the ground in 1531, 1607 and 1682, respectively.It turned out that it was one and the same comet that was moving along its trajectory through the time period of approximately 75 years.In the end, it was named after the scientist.

comets in the solar system

We are in the solar system.Not far from us was found at least 1,000 comets.They are divided into two families, and they, in turn, divided into classes.To classify comets, scientists take into account their specific features: the time in which they can go all the way in its orbit, and the period of treatment.If we take for example, Halley's Comet, mentioned earlier, it takes a complete turn around the sun for less than 200 years.It refers to the periodic comets.However, there are those who overcome all the way for a much smaller period of time - the so-called short-period comets.We can not doubt that in our solar system, there are a huge number of periodic comets with orbits that pass around our star.These celestial bodies can be removed from the center of our system so far as to leave behind Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.Sometimes they can be very close approach to the planets, which is why change change their orbits.As an example, the comet Encke.

information about comets: long-period

The trajectory of long-period comets is very different from the short-period.They bypass the sun on all sides.For example, Heyakutake and Hale-Bopp.Last we looked very spectacular, the last time I approached the planet.Scientists estimate that the next time on Earth they can be seen only after thousands of years.A lot of comets, with a long period of movement can be found on the edge of our solar system.In the middle of the 20th century Dutch astronomer speculated about the existence of clusters of comets.Some time later it was proved the existence of cometary cloud, which is known today as the "Oort Cloud" and was named after the scientist who discovered it.What is the number of comets in the Oort cloud?According to some assumptions, not less than a trillion.The period of movement of some of these comets may be several light years.In this case, your entire way of comet overcome for 10 million years!

fragments of Comet Shoemaker - Levy 9

Reports of comets around the world to help them study.Very interesting and impressive vision, astronomers were able to observe in 1994.More than 20 fragments left over from Comet Shoemaker - Levy 9 with crazy speed (about 200 000 kilometers per hour) collided with Jupiter.Asteroids flew into the planet's atmosphere with flares and vast explosions.The hot gas affected the formation of very large fire areas.The temperature at which the chemical elements are warmed up, several times higher than the temperature which is fixed to the surface of the sun.After that, the telescope could see a very tall pillar of gas.Its height reached enormous proportions - 3200 kilometers.

Comet Biela - double comet

As we have learned, there is plenty of evidence that comets are destroyed over time.Because of this, they lose their brightness and beauty.You can see only one example of such a case - the comet Biela.The first time it was discovered in 1772.Subsequently, however, it is not just seen again in 1815, when - in 1826 and 1832. When it was observed in 1845, it turned out that the comet looks much bigger than before.Six months later it became clear that it was not one, but two comets that were next to each other.What happened?Astronomers have found that a year ago, an asteroid Biela split in two.The last time scientists recorded the appearance of this miracle of the comet.One part of it was much brighter than the other.Most of it never seen.However, in a time not just conspicuous meteor stream orbit that exactly matches the orbit of Comet Biela.This case proved that comets can break down over time.

What happens when a collision

to meeting our planet with these celestial bodies do not bode good.A large fragment of a comet or meteorite about the size of about 100 meters high in the atmosphere exploded in June 1908.As a result of the disaster killed many reindeer and felled two thousand kilometers of taiga.What would happen if such a boulder exploded over a major city such as New York or Moscow?It cost the lives of millions of people.What would happen if a comet hit the Earth in a diameter of several kilometers?As mentioned above, in the middle of the planet Jupiter in July 1994 was "fired" fragments of Comet Shoemaker - Levy 9. Scientists Millions watched the scene.What would have ended our planet such a collision?

Comets and Earth - the representation of scientists

information about comets, the famous scientist, sowing fear in their hearts.Astronomers and analysts paint a horror in their minds terrible pictures - the collision with a comet.When the asteroid will fly into the air, it will cause irreversible destruction of the space inside the body.It will explode with a deafening sound, and the world will be watching a column of meteoric debris - dust and stones.Sky cover fiery red glow.On Earth, there will be no vegetation, because of the explosion and the fragments will be destroyed all the forests, fields and meadows.Due to the fact that the atmosphere would be impervious to sunlight, a sharp gets cold, and plants will not be able to fulfill the role of photosynthesis.Thus violated feeding cycles of marine life.Being a long time without food, many of them will die.All these events will affect the natural cycles.Ubiquitous acid rain adversely affect the ozone layer, so breathe on our planet would be impossible.What would happen if a comet will fall into one of the oceans?Then it can lead to devastating environmental disasters: the formation of tornadoes and tsunamis.The difference is only in the fact that these disasters will be a much larger scale than those that we can feel the several thousand years of human history.Huge waves of hundreds or thousands of meters swept away everything in its path.From the towns and cities there is nothing left.

"should not worry"

Other scientists, on the contrary, they say that there is no need to worry about such disasters.They claimed that if the earth and the heavens will approach close to the asteroid, it will lead only to the coverage of the sky and the meteor shower.Should I worry about the future of our planet?Is there any chance that we have ever met a flying comet?

Falling comet.Should we be afraid

Can we trust what scientists are?Do not forget that all the information about comets recorded above - only theoretical assumptions that can not be verified.Of course, these fantasies can wreak havoc in people's hearts, but the likelihood that the world will ever happen something like that, is negligible.Scientists who investigate our solar system, and delight at how everything has been thought in her unit.Meteorites and comets, it is difficult to get to our planet because it is protected by a giant shield.The planet Jupiter, due to its size, has great gravity.So often it protects our planet from flying by asteroids and comets residues.So, where is our planet, leads many to believe that all the equipment has been designed and thought out in advance.If so, and you are not an ardent atheist, then you can sleep peacefully, because the Creator is undoubtedly keep the land for the purpose for which it was created.

names of the most famous

message about comets from different scholars from around the world make up a huge database of information about celestial bodies.Among the most famous are several.For example, the comet Churyumov - Gerasimenko.In addition, in this article we could meet with a comet Fumeykera - Levy 9 and Encke's comet and.Apart from these, known not only for researchers to heaven, but fans of the comet Sadulayeva.In this article we have tried to provide the most complete and reliable information about comets, their structure and in contact with other celestial bodies.However, it is impossible to embrace all the vastness of space, so it does not turn to describe or list all the currently known comet.A summary of the comets of the solar system is shown in the illustration below.

Research sky

knowledge of scientists, of course, is not standing still.What we know now, it was not known to us some 100 or even 10 years ago.We can be sure that indefatigable man's desire to know the cosmos will continue to push it to attempt to understand the structure of celestial bodies: meteorites, comets, asteroids, planets, stars and other objects more powerful.Now we have got into such expanses of space that meditation on the unknowable and the vastness of its awe-inspiring.Many agree that all this could not occur by itself and without a goal.In such a complex structure should be the intention.However, many issues related to the structure of the cosmos, and remain unanswered.It seems the more we learn, the more there is to explore further the reasons.In fact, the more information we get, the more we understand that do not know our solar system, our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the more the universe.However, all this does not stop the astronomers, and they continue to continue to fight over the riddles of existence.Each flying near the comet is of particular interest to them.

computer program "Space Engine"

Fortunately, today explore the universe can not only astronomers, but also ordinary people, the curiosity that motivates them to do so.It not so long ago was released the program for computers "Space Engine".It is supported by most modern computers of the middle class.It is completely free to download and install by searching the Internet.Through this program, information about comets for children will also be very interesting.It presents a model of the whole universe, including all comets and celestial bodies, which are now known to modern scholars.To find a space object of interest to us, for example, a comet, you can use the built-in system-oriented search.For example, you need the comet Churyumov - Gerasimenko.To find it, you need to enter its serial number 67 F. If you are interested in another object, such as a comet Sadulayeva.Then you can try to enter her name in Latin letters, or enter its special issue.Through this program, you can learn more about cosmic comet.