Language is a multi-faceted and multi-functional concept.In order to determine its nature is required to carefully consider a number of questions.For example, a tongue and the relation of its elements, the influence of external factors and functions in human society.
Definition Portable values
Already from junior school, everyone knows that the same words can be used in different ways in the speech.Direct (mostly, major) value is called, which correspond with objective reality.It does not depend on the context and the allegory.An example is the word "collapse".In medicine, it is a sharp and sudden fall in blood pressure, and in astronomy - fast compression of stars under the influence of gravitational forces.
figurative meaning of words - this is their second value.It occurs when the conscious transfer of title of a phenomenon to another because of the similarity of their functions, features, and so on.. For example, the same "collapse" was figurative meaning of the word.Examples relate to public life.Thus, in a figurative sense "collapse" means the destruction, the collapse of the union of people as a result of the onset of a systemic crisis.
In linguistics figurative meaning of words - it is their secondary derivatives related to the principal value of the metaphorical, metonymic addiction or any associative signs.At the same time it appears on the basis of logic, spatial, temporal and other correlative concepts.
Words with figurative meaning are used in the name of those phenomena that do not have a common and constant object to refer to.They come together with other concepts for emerging associations, which are obvious to speak.
Words used in a figurative sense, can keep the imagery.For example, dirty innuendo or dirty thoughts.These values are shaped in the dictionaries.These words invented by writers from different metaphors.
However, in most cases, when there is a transfer of value, the imagery is lost.Examples include phrases such as spout and elbow, the clock and tail the carrots.In such cases there is the attenuation of imagery in the lexical meaning of the words.
Changing the essence of the concept
figurative meaning of words can be reserved for any action, a sign or object.As a result, it passes into the category of major or basic.For example, the spine of a book or a door handle.
figurative meaning of words - it is not uncommon due to their ambiguity.In scientific language it is called "Polysemy".Often, there is not a word one stable value.In addition, people who use the language, there is often a need to name a new phenomenon which does not yet have a lexical notation.In this case, they use familiar words to them.
Questions polisemii - it usually issues a nomination.In other words, move things in the existing identity of the word.However, not all scientists agree with this.Some of them are not allowed to have more than one meaning of the word.There is another opinion.Many scientists supported the idea that the figurative meaning of words - it is their lexical meaning, which is realized in different ways.
For example, we say "red tomato".As used herein, the adjective is direct value."Red" can be said about the man.In this case, it is understood that he blushed and blushed.Thus, the figurative meaning can always be explained through direct.But an explanation why the red called red, linguistics can not give.Just the title of this color.
The polysemy phenomenon exists disparity of values.For example, the word "break" can mean that the subject suddenly caught fire, and that the man blushed with shame, and the fact that suddenly there was a quarrel, and so on.. Some of these expressions are found in most languages.They immediately come to mind when the word is mentioned.Others are used only in special situations and special combinations.
between several meanings of the word, there are semantic links that make obvious the phenomenon when different properties and objects are called the same.
use of the word in a figurative sense can be not only stable fact language.Such use is sometimes limited, fleeting, and is carried out within just one statement.In this case, achieved the goal of exaggeration and special expressiveness said.
Thus, there is a delicate figurative meaning of the word.Examples of use are in poetry and literature.For these genres is an effective artistic technique.For example, the Bloc can remember "desert eyes wagons" or "dust rain in swallowing pills."What is the figurative meaning of the word in this case?It is evidence of his unlimited ability to explain new concepts.
emergence of figurative meanings of words of literary and stylistic type and a paths.In other words, a figure of speech.
philology allocated a number of different types of transport names.One of the most important among them is a metaphor.It is intended for the transfer of names of one phenomenon to another.And this is possible only if the similarity of certain features.Similarity can be external (color, size, nature, form and movement) and internal (assessment, feelings and impressions).So, with the help of metaphors say about black thoughts and sour face, Lying storm and cold reception.In this case the replacement of things, but a sign of the concept remains the same.
figurative meaning of words using the metaphor occurs in varying degrees of similarity.An example is the duck (medical device) and a caterpillar tractor.It is used for the transfer of similar form.Metaphorical sense can be held and the names given to man.For example, Hope, Love, Faith.Sometimes the transfer is carried out on the values of the similarity with the sounds.So, toot called the siren.
It is also one of the most important types of transfer of titles.However, when its use is not applied similarities internal and external features.Here we have a contiguity of cause-effect relationships, or, in other words, Touching things in time or in space.
metonymic figurative meaning of words - is not just a change of subject, but also the very notion.If you have any explanation for this phenomenon is only amenable to the neighboring communication units lexical chain.
figurative meaning of words can be based on associations with the material from which the object is made.For example, the earth (soil), table (food), and so on. D.
This concept is the transfer of any part of the whole.Examples include the phrase "child skirt goes for the mother," "a hundred head of cattle," etc.
This concept is identical to the sound of Philology of two or more different words.Homonymy is sound coincidence of lexical units that are not connected to each other semantically.
distinguish phonetic and grammatical homonyms.The first case concerns the words that are in the accusative or the nominative case, sound the same but have different compositions of phonemes.For example, "rod" and "pond."Grammar homonyms arise when and phoneme pronunciation and word coincide, but form different individual words.For example, the number "three" and the verb "three".When you change the pronunciation of words will not be the same.For example, "rub", "three" and so on. D.
This concept refers to the words of the same part of speech, the same or similar in its lexical meaning.The origins are foreign-language synonymy and its lexical meanings obscheliteraturnogo and dialect.There are portable because of the meaning of words and jargon ("burst" - "is").
Synonyms are divided into types.Among them:
- absolute, when the meaning of words is identical ("Octopus" - "Octopus");
- conceptual differing shades of lexical meanings ("think" - "think");
- stylistic, which have stylistic differences in color ("sleep" - "sleep").
This concept for the words belonging to the same part of speech, but at the same time having the opposite concepts.This type of portable values can be the difference in structure ("bear" - "make") and different roots ("white" - "black").
Antonimija seen in the words that express counterposed orientation signs, conditions, actions and properties.The purpose of their use - the transfer of contrasts.This technique is often used in poetry and oratory.