development of any state - a process that can consist of many different components.It involves a decision by the authorities for the various tasks, the participation of a wide range of subjects.The same can be said about one of the aspects of nation-building - the development of the political system.It also is built into the process.How are its characteristics?
What is the political process?
investigate the concept of the political process.What could be its definition?In the Russian science as such is a sequence of events, phenomena and processes that characterize the relationship between the different actors - people, organizations, governments - in politics.
Viewed process can take place at different levels and in different spheres of social life.For example, it may indicate a communication between entities within the same authority, or the entire state system, held at the municipal, regional or federal level.
concept of the political process may involve a fairly broad interpretation of the relevant term.In addition, each of his interpretations can mean the formation of a separate category in the framework of the phenomenon.There are thus different types of political processes that can be characterized by a considerable dissimilarity between them.Consider this feature in more detail.
Classification political processes
In order to investigate the types of political processes, it is first necessary to determine the possible reasons for the classification of the phenomenon.What criteria can be applied here?
in Russian science common approach, in which the political process can be divided into domestic and foreign policy - depending on what the essence of key stakeholders directly influencing its course.
Another reason for the classification of the political process - their reference to voluntary or controlled.It describes the phenomenon is seen in terms of the characteristics of the mechanisms of participation of subjects in the respective lanes.
There are such forms of political process as open and informal.The key criterion here - the public entity affecting the relevant phenomena.
There are revolutionary and evolutionary types of political processes.A key criterion in this case - the time during which realize certain modifications at communication subjects, and in many cases - the methods by which they are made.
Political processes are also divided into stable and volatile.In this case, what matters is how stable and predictable behavior of subjects may be affecting the course of the phenomenon.
We now study the specifics of the development of political processes within the award Classification details.
foreign policy and internal political processes
So, the first basis for the classification of the phenomenon - the assignment of its varieties to foreign or domestic policy.The process attributable to the first type involves subjects directly related to the institutions of government and society, which operate within a single state.These may be people occupying any position in government, business leaders, social structures, political parties and ordinary citizens.Foreign policy process assumes that its course affect the subjects of foreign origin - heads of state, foreign corporations and institutions.
Some researchers identify communication is solely at the international level.Formed thus the global political process.Events and phenomena that are typical for him, may thus influence the situation in individual countries - for example, when it comes to discussions regarding the writing-off against any country foreign debt, or the imposition of sanctions.
voluntary and controlled processes
following grounds, upon which certain types of political processes - classification of the phenomena under consideration to voluntary or controlled.In the first case it is assumed that the subjects that affect the course of the relevant events, are based on the personal political will, in accordance with their beliefs and priorities.This can be expressed, for example, the participation of people in the presidential election.Turnout them voluntary, as well as the choice of the candidate.Monitored political developments suggest that the subjects that affect them, are based on the provisions of the law or, for example, due to administrative action by the competent structures.In practice, this can be expressed, for example, in the presence of visas required for entry into a state of citizens of another: thus controlled by the immigration aspect of the international political process.
Open and shadow processes
the following reasons for the classification of the phenomenon - the assignment of its varieties to open or shadow.Political processes of the first type assume that actors influencing it, are the activities in public.In most developed countries and it takes place: in particular, the people choose the president from among the candidates who are known to all.The procedure for electing the head of state documented in the laws and available for anyone to review.The president, who chose people have known all the powers and implements them.But there are countries in which senior officials are also selected, but the real political decisions can be taken non-public entities, the essence of which is incomprehensible to ordinary citizens, and access to relevant information is closed.In the first case, the political process will open in the second - a shadow.
revolutionary and evolutionary political process
Political processes may vary depending on the methods of implementation of the subjects of certain activities, as well as the rate of change that characterize one or another aspect of communications.Regarding the evolutionary processes: methods, usually based on the provisions of the sources of law - laws, regulations, orders.They change requires the involvement of a fairly long time, parliamentary and administrative procedures.But in the case of the sources of instability in the country, which determine the methods used by the subjects of the political process, could become slogans, manifestos, demands not related to the current laws.As a result of possible events and phenomena that are not typical for the first scenario.Thus forming a revolutionary political process.It often happens that while significant changes relate to the whole structure of government.
Stable and volatile processes
political process - in society, in the structures of power in the international arena - can be characterized by stability or, on the contrary, volatility.In the first case the subjects that affect the relevant events and developments will be based on norms and customs that do not change much over time.
In the second scenario might appeal to the sources containing provisions that can be interpreted loosely enough or modify preferences by virtue of the subjects of the political process.
Structural components of the political process
We now study the structural aspect of the phenomenon.What are the common theses of Russian researchers on this issue?The structure of the political process often involves the inclusion of the following components:
- subject (governments, civil society, the political structure or a specific citizen, able to influence the course of events and the corresponding effects);
- object (area of the active subject, describing the purpose of his actions, priorities, preferences);
- methods that underpin the subject in solving their problems;
- the resources at the disposal of the subject of the political process.
studied in more detail the specifics of each of the marked points.
essence of the subjects of the political process
Thus, the structure of the political process requires the inclusion of subjects.Among these are most often the authorities as independent institutions or specific officials.The political process in Russia, as noted by many researchers, is characterized by a significant role of the individual in the relevant field of communications.Across the state can play a key role, President, in the region - his head, in the city - the mayor.
Objects political process
Their nature may be different.Thus, some researchers consider economic and political processes in context, considering the first type of objects for the second.The development of the national economic system, business, employment problems of citizens - these issues are relevant to any country.
Accordingly, the purpose of the subjects of the political process, are senior officials may be to achieve positive results in their respective areas of work.That is, in this case, the economy will be subject to the political process.
Methods political process
essence of the methods in question can also vary considerably.The subject of power, designed to meet the challenges of the modernization of the economic system of the state and other issues must first somehow get his position.In this case we are talking about methods, based on which people will be able to take power into their own hands.
political process in Russia suggests that those elections will be held - at the level of municipality, region or country as a whole.In turn, the actual decision problems, such as the modernization of the economy have to be implemented on the basis of that method - lawmaking.For example, the President can initiate the adoption of certain legal acts aimed at stimulating the country's economic development.
Resources political process
subject of power can be available to the most effective methods for solving tasks, but if it is not available the necessary resources to implement the plan will fail.In the form which can be represented by the corresponding component of the political process?
First of all, of course, the capital.If we talk about politics, it can be budget or borrowed.The term "resource" can also be interpreted somewhat differently - as a kind of source for maintaining the legitimacy of power.This is not necessarily to be finance.These are the resource may be the will of the people, the citizens of the state.Formed thus social and political process that requires constant interaction of government and society.At the same time, by analogy with the financial sector, the resource in this case can be understood as the trust of the citizens, which is the subject of public administration must justify.
So, we are considering the term "political process" can be understood on the one hand, as a set of events and phenomena that occur at a particular level of communication, on the other hand, as a category with a complex structure, which includes a prettydisparate elements.In turn, the individual components of the political process and will be characterized by complexity, but their essence can be interpreted through a variety of approaches.