current political situation in Russia is characterized by the formation of a democratic regime, the main feature of which is the presence of political and ideological pluralism, the rule of law and civil society.This process - complicated and extended in time.One of its most important manifestations may serve as the folding of institutions such as multiparty political system and responsible to the people of the state apparatus.
party system and its essence
political system of any country is an extremely complex mechanism, which includes a wide variety of items.One of its elements is binding party system, which is not only the totality of the State party, but also the socio-legal mechanisms of interaction between them and the degree of understanding of the necessity and importance of the citizens of their existence.
The main types of party systems
Most Western political scientists and social scientists have long concluded that the presence of one or another party system accurately reflects the political development of society.Thus, the multi-party system and evidence of the development of social structure, and a high degree of influence of civil society on the decisions of public authorities.Conversely, one party - the constant sign of a totalitarian society, indicating that people are much easier to shift responsibility to bureaucrats than to take it on themselves.
In a number of states (for example, in the United States and the United Kingdom) have a relatively long-acting two-party system.This two-party system does not mean it is the existence of so many parties.Just a real fight is just between the major political forces, to other parties and movements virtually chance to come to power there.
multiparty system and its features
Features multiparty system include both external differences from other systems, and complex inner essence.The former include the presence of more than two parties, most of which have real chances to come to power, the development of the electoral legislation, active civil society institutions, turnover of the political elite.
Interior features arise from the fact that the essence of multi-party system - is a complex compromise between the huge number of participants.This is the maximum public system based on the principles of competition and mutual respect for each other.It allows every citizen to find exactly the kind of political force that is most fully represent its interests and those of the people around him.This multi-party system, forcing every citizen is constantly interested in events in the country.
multi-party system exists in different varieties.It depends not only on the party structure, but also on existing in a given society, political tradition and political culture.
Classic is the so-called multi-party fragmentation that currently exists in countries such as Denmark, Austria, Belgium.In this system, no party leader, none of the political forces does not get an absolute majority in the elections, so is forced to enter into one or another coalition.This system is unstable, so that tends to move to a different state.
Other types of multi-party systems
One of the most stable states of the political system due to the multi-party bloc.This multi-party system operating, for example, in France, shared by all major political forces in several blocks.This structure makes the parties and their leaders to make certain concessions with its allies, a more balanced attitude to the drawing up of pre-election programs and party discipline.
Finally, there is a multi-party system in which a key role is played by one, the biggest union.Where opposition forces are fragmented and unable to offer citizens a coherent alternative.The main drawback of such a regime, which is typical, for example, India and Sweden, is that it often leads to stagnation in the political life and aging in the depths of society to strive for revolutionary change.
formation of a multiparty system in Russia: the pre-revolutionary period
multiparty system in Russia began to emerge much later than in most developed countries of Western Europe and America.The main reason for this was the ruling centuries serfdom with a strong autocratic power.
reforms of the sixties of the XIX century led not only to rapid economic growth, but also to significant changes in the political arena of the country.This primarily refers to the process of politicization harsh society in which different social groups have sought to influence gradually losing its influence autocracy.
multiparty system in Russia dates back to the late XIX - early XX centuries., When a partial decade took shape more than fifty parties.Of course, this process is directly related to the turbulent events of the first Russian revolution of the seventeenth edition of the Manifesto of October 1905.Among the most notable political organizations is to provide the RSDLP, Constitutional Democratic Party, the Octobrists, the Union of the Russian people and the Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries.
At the same time it should be noted that the formation of a multiparty system in the country was held in a major social change, before the revolution, this process has not been completed.The main obstacles here are complex multi-stage system of elections, unequal conditions for the parties in the political process, and to preserve the dominant position of the autocracy in the political arena.
With the arrival in October 1917 to power the revolutionary-minded of the Bolshevik Party activities of all the other political groups began gradually phased out.By the summer of 1918 the RSDLP (b) remains the only legally functioning political parties, all the rest were either closed or disbanded.For many decades, the country established a monopoly of force.
multi-party system in the Soviet Union began to revive in the late 1980s. When, in connection with the restructuring and the policy of democratization in the country began to appear the opposition political movement.Especially fast this process went after the abolition in 1990, the sixth article of the Constitution, which guaranteed the dominant position of the Communist Party.
Already in the first few months after the famous March of the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR Ministry of Justice, there were about twenty political parties and movements.At the time of disintegration of the state, there were already more than sixty.
formation of a multiparty system in Russia: the current stage
formation of a multiparty system in Russia have reached a new level after the adoption in December 1993 of a new Constitution.It was here, in the thirteenth article, secured a political and legal institution, as the multi-party system.It implies the existence of an unlimited number of parties, which, on the one hand, have the right to legally fight for power, but on the other - must answer for their actions before the voters.
In Russia today, there is no any official ideology, so political parties can have both right and left-wing bias.The main condition - the lack of their program requirements appeals to racial or ethnic discrimination, as well as the revolutionary action to radically change the existing system.Mindful of the Soviet experience, the creation of party cells in factories, in organizations and institutions is prohibited.
The largest and well-known political movements whose activity has continued for more than one election cycle, should include the Communist Party, "United Russia", "Apple", the Liberal Democratic Party, "Fair Russia".These parties differ from each other not only the program requirements but also its organizational structure and methods of work with the population.
Features modern Russian multiparty system
considering the formation of a multiparty system in our country, analyzing its characteristics, it should be remembered that its formation and development took place under difficult conditions of transition from one social system to another.In addition it should be borne in mind folding feature local parties and skeptical attitude to the majority of citizens of the party system.
One of the most important components of a multiparty system in our country, it should be recognized that it is spasmodic.The multi-party system in modern Russia is strongly influenced by external processes.This is due primarily to the fact that many parties are formed entirely of short-term goals, did not set out to address the serious social and ideological problems.
feature a multiparty system in Russia is still in the fact that almost all parties (with the exception, perhaps, of the Communist Party) created around a particular leader, not as a spokesman for the interests of certain social groups or classes.The leaders, in turn, are considering the creation of a political union as an opportunity for themselves to get into the echelons of power and integrate into the existing political model.
main difficulties and solutions
main difficulty in the development of political and ideological pluralism in our country due to the fact that the society for more than two decades of the transition period and has not established the basic ideological core.In many ways, this is why the party focused on short-term benefits without worrying about the planned system.The way out of this situation can become a consistent work of the state and civil society that will lead to the development of clear guidelines for all ideological.
Another difficulty is that the multi-party system, examples of which are discussed above, in most countries, was formed during the so-called bourgeois revolutions.In our country, a multiparty system began to develop after seventy years of harsh authoritarian model.This, in turn, had an influence on the attitude of ordinary citizens to the authorities, at their wish and desire to actively participate in society.
Key findings and perspectives
One-party and multi-party systems in different countries reflect the situation in the political sphere, give an idea about the traditions and mentality of the people.Modern Russia is in a difficult transition period when long considered inviolable installation appeared rapidly destroyed, and new ideological orientation has not been formed.
In these circumstances, a multi-party system is doomed to a long and complex process of its formation.At the same time world experience allows to assume that all of the major difficulties will be overcome with the times, and Russia will enter a more active construction of a modern democratic society.