In the relatively recent past, before the advent of antibiotics and the widespread prevalence of hunger, especially mankind do not think about their numbers.And with good reason, as the constant wars and famine carried off millions of lives.
particularly revealing in this regard, there were two world wars, when the loss of all the warring parties exceeded the 70-80 million people.Historians believe that the deaths of more than 100 million, as the actions of the Japanese militarists in China and to this day have not been studied to the right degree, although they killed countless civilians.
Today, other global issues.The demographic problem - one of the most serious and important among them.However, it should be considered, if a sharp increase in the number of mankind only started today.In the past, there were also sharp jumps in population of individual countries, all of these processes are often led to very serious consequences in the global sense.
What causes a population explosion?
believed that sudden bursts of the population still has a positive feature.The fact that in this case the whole country "younger" reduced medical costs.But that's all good finishes.
dramatically increases the number of beggars, repeatedly rising costs of education, the number of schools produced professionals increases so that the country simply can not provide them with employment.In the labor market there is a huge number of young and healthy people who are willing to do the work for a very modest fee.As a result, the cost of labor (and without a cheap) falls to a minimum.Begins the ascent of crime, robberies and murders are quickly becoming "business card" of the state.
comprehensive vision problems
follow from this, many modern global issues.The demographic problem is often just a reflection of the negative processes taking place in the state.The inability of the company to take a new citizens useful work, unwillingness to guarantee them housing, food and education speaks to the weakness of domestic policy.
However, not all so bad.If the country has close ties with international partners and preparing highly qualified specialists, part of the younger generation may find yourself on the labor markets of other countries.In addition, great importance have seasonal jobs that allow you to unload the internal labor market and to correct some demographic problems of society.
differences in living standards
Alas, in this case, the crucial role played by the level of development of the state.If in Europe the rapid growth of the white population is simply not possible due to high prices for good accommodation and education for the children, for the wave of migrants from Africa and other countries of the "Third World" little things do not matter.
Content with government benefits, they can easily huddle in small rented apartments, regularly producing all new children.As a result of sharply increased the number of freeloaders, sitting on the neck of taxpayers.Growing social tensions, declining wages, mass unemployment appears as all the "grassroots" positions are held in large migrants who agree to work for lower wages.
Here are the reasons of the demographic problem."First violin" necessarily state should play.If it is dismissive of the solution to the problem, nothing good comes out.
again about social policy
If we consider all the complex global challenges, the demographic problem is often a contributing factor but not the cause, leading to all the above effects.
main cause of all troubles is always a bad social policy, or complete lack thereof.Take the same Africa.The international community allocates huge funds for the purchase of contraceptives, but their advertising almost no one does that and gives rise to the demographic problems of modern society.
In addition, in many regions of the Central African population has increased to such a miserable state that a large number of children who work in the field or begging - the only means of survival for the family.Growing up, they join the ranks of the numerous armed groups that continue to drive the entire region into even greater chaos.The reason - the lack of even basic social orazvitiya public support, the absence of any formal source of income.
Other dangers of overpopulation
known that the consumption of modern civilization many thousands of times higher than in normal biological needs of man.Even the poorest countries consume more than they did a couple of hundred years ago.
course, with a sharp increase in the number of population, the general impoverishment of a large part of it, and a complete inability of government agencies to establish above all this at least some semblance of control avalanche increases unsustainable consumption of resources.The consequence of this are multiply plum toxic waste handicraft enterprises, mountains of rubbish and a complete disregard though some environmental measures.
What does all this lead?
As a result, the country is on the brink of ecological catastrophe, and the population - on the verge of starvation.Think modern demographic problems began only in recent years?In the same Africa since the mid-60s in as many provinces People began to suffer from a lack of food.Western medicine have improved life expectancy, but its overall remained the same way.
born many children needed more land for their livelihood.A farming there and to this day is being slash and burn method.As a result of hectares of fertile soil into desert, exposed to wind erosion and leaching.
That's all - global problems.The demographic problem is (as you can see) is characteristic for the transition of cultures that received sharp access to the benefits of modern civilization.Tunable they can not or do not want, thus causing hard socio-cultural contradictions that might even lead to war.
However, in our world there are many countries where the demographic problem is presented with a completely opposite view.These are the developed countries, where the problem is just the same in the fact that people of reproductive age are not willing to create a family, do not have children.
As a result, the place of indigenous migrants come, which often contribute to the complete destruction of the entire socio-cultural component of the ethnic group, who had lived in the area.Of course, it's not too life-affirming finale, but without active involvement and participation of the state such problem is not solved.
How can the demographic problem be solved?
So what are the solutions to the demographic problem?Methods solutions logically follow from the causes of the phenomenon.First, you need to necessarily raise the level of living standards, improve the health of its service.It is known that poor countries are often forced to give birth mother a lot of children, not only because of tradition, but also because of the high infant mortality rate.
If it is to survive, every child will have less meaning to give birth to a dozen children.Unfortunately, in the case of the same workers in European good medical care led only to the fact that they have to bear more.Much the same is observed in Haiti, where the vast majority of the population lives far below the poverty line, but continues to regularly give birth.Various non-governmental organizations pay many benefits, which is enough for survival.
Medicine - above all!
Therefore, do not be limited only to improve the quality of medical care.It should offer financial incentives to families in which no more than two or three children, they impose less taxes, offers a simplified scheme for admission to universities to children from such families.Simply put, social and demographic problems must be addressed comprehensively.
In addition, it is extremely important for effective social advertising about the benefits of contraception, supported by the low cost of such drugs.It is necessary to explain to people that overpopulation leads to poor living conditions for their children, who can not live a normal life in the big cities smog deprived of greenery and clean air.
How to increase fertility?
What are the ways to solve the demographic problem, if you do not have to fight overpopulation and a shortage of this population?Oddly enough, but they are virtually the same.Let us examine them from the standpoint of our country.
Firstly, it is extremely important to raise the level of welfare.Many young families do not have a child just because of the fact that it is not confident in the future.It should be affordable housing for young families, tax breaks, increased considerably material payments to family allowances.
Among other things, it is obligatory to provide the possibility of preferential medicines and food for children.So how is all this very much, many young families just drain their budgets, buying everything you need only your money.In the same row, and is reducing the tax burden on the young and large families.
course, do not forget also about the promotion of family values.In any case, the solution of demographic problems have to be complex, with the obligatory account of all the factors which lead to violations of fertility.