Mongol-Tatar invasion caused great damage to the political, economic and cultural development of Russia.The invasion triggered a wave of Central Asian nomads resistance of our people.However, the population of some fortified settlements, who preferred to give up without a fight, the winner of this sometimes bitter regrets.Let's find out what cities Russia resisted the Mongolian troops?
Background Mongol invasion of Rus
Great Mongolian warlord Genghis Khan established a vast empire whose territory exceeds the size of long-existing states.Even during his lifetime nomadic hordes invaded the Azov Sea expanses, where the Battle of the Kalka River routed the Russian-Polovtsian army.It is believed that this was a reconnaissance in force, designed to further pave the way Tatars in Eastern Europe.
mission of conquering the peoples of Europe was assigned to the descendants of Genghis Khan's son, Jochi, which has been allocated to inherit the western ulus empire.The decision to march to the west was taken at vsemongolskom Kurultai in 1235.At the head of a vast Mongol army was the son of Jochi, Batu Khan (Batu).
first under the pressure of his troops fell Bulgarian Khanate.Then he moved his horde on the Russian principalities.During the invasion of Batu were seized large cities of Russia, as will be explained below.Slightly more fortunate and residents of rural areas, because the crops have been trampled, and many of them either killed or driven into captivity.
So let's see what the city of Russia resisted the Mongolian troops.
Siege of Ryazan
first Russian cities Mongol force impact experienced the Ryazan.Prince led the defense of the city of Ryazan Yuri I., who was assisted by his nephew Oleg Ingvarevich Red.
After the beginning of the siege of Ryazan showed miracles of heroism and bravely held the city.They successfully repulsed the attack of the Mongols in five days.But then the Tatars brought their siege weapons, which have learned to use, more fighting in China.With these technical facilities they managed to break down the walls of Ryazan and take the city for three days.It happened in December 1237.
Prince Igor was killed Oleg Ingvarevich captured, the population of Ryazan partly killed, partly escaped into the woods, and the city is completely destroyed and more than ever the place was not restored.
After taking the Ryazan under the pressure of the Mongols began to fall, and other cities.States in Russia in the form of principalities due to its disunity were not able to give a fitting rebuff to the enemy.Mongols were captured Kolomna and Moscow.Finally Tatar army approached the city of Vladimir left before his Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich.Citizens began to prepare for a heavy siege.Vladimir City in ancient Russia was a major economic and political center, and the Mongols understood its strategic importance.
Guide defense of the city in the absence of the father took the children of Grand Duke Vladimir Vsevolod and Mstislav, and Governor Peter Oslyadyukovich.Nevertheless, Vladimir was able to hold only four days.In February 1238 he fell.The last defenders of the city took refuge in the caves of the Assumption Cathedral, but it has brought them only a small reprieve from death.After a month in the River City was inflicted the final defeat of Prince Vladimir of Russia Yuri Vsevolodovich.In this battle he was killed.
Kozel'sk - "evil city»
When the question is raised, what cities of Russia resisted the Mongolian troops, make sure you remember the Kozelsk.His heroic resistance deservedly went into the history books of our country.
Prior to April 1238 the Mongols came to the small town of Kozelsk which was the capital of an independent principality, located in the Chernigov land.Prince Vasili was there twelve kinds of Olegoviches.But despite its size, and the infancy of the ruler, Kozelsk had the longest and desperate resistance of the Mongols of all Russian fortresses before combined.Relatively easy to Baty captured the major cities of Russia, and this little town was able to take only putting its walls more than four thousand chosen Mongolian soldiers.The siege lasted for seven weeks.
Because of the expensive price that had to pay for taking Batu Kozelsk, he ordered henceforth call it "evil city."The entire population was brutally destroyed.But weakened by the Mongol army was forced to return to the steppe, thereby delaying the death of the capital city of Russia - Kiev.
death of Kiev
Nevertheless, in the next 1239 the Mongols continued their western trek and returned from the steppes, they seized and destroyed Chernihiv, and in autumn 1240 came to Kiev - the mother of Russian cities.
By the time it was the capital of Russia only formally, although it remained the largest city.Supervised Kiev Prince Daniel Galician-Volyn.Manage city he put his tysyatskogo Dmitriev, who led the defense of the Mongols.
to the walls of Kiev went almost all the Mongolian army, participating in the western campaign.According to some sources the city was able to hold out for three months, on the other - he fell in just nine days.
After the capture of Kiev Mongols invaded Russia in Galicia, where they are particularly stubborn resistance had Danilov, Kremenets and Hill.After the capture of the Mongol conquest of the cities of the Russian lands could be considered as completed.
consequences of taking the Russian cities of Mongols
So, we figured out which cities Russia resisted the Mongolian troops.They suffered from the Mongol invasion most.Population them at best to sell into slavery, and at worst - completely cut.Themselves as the city burned and razed to the ground.However, most of them still managed to rebuild later.However, submission and implementation of all requirements of the Mongols, as history shows, the city did not guarantee that it will remain intact.
Nevertheless, a few centuries Russian principality strengthened, including drawing on the city, and were able to throw the hated Mongol-Tatar yoke.A period of Muscovite Russia.