Hardly ever robot to replace human activities in those areas which require the rapid adoption of innovative solutions both in peace and in combat.Nevertheless, the development of drones recently become a fashionable trend devyatiletie military aircraft.Many of the leading in the country's military mass produce UAVs.Russia has not yet managed to not only take traditional for her leadership in the field of designing weapons positions, but also to overcome the backlog in this segment of defense technologies.However, work in this direction is underway.
Motivation UAV development
The first results of the use of drones has emerged in the forties, however, the technique of the time more consistent with the concept of "flying bomb".Cruise missile "Fau" could make a flight in the same direction in standalone mode, with its own system of monitoring the course, built on the inertial gyroscopic principle.
In the 50s and 60s the Soviet air defense system have reached a high level of efficiency, and began to pose a serious danger to aircraft likely opponent in a real confrontation.The war in Vietnam and the Middle East have caused among the pilots of the US and Israel panic.Often there were cases of failure to carry out combat missions in areas covered with antiaircraft complexes of Soviet production.Ultimately, the reluctance to expose life to a deadly risk pilots led engineering companies find a way out.
Getting practical application
first country to introduce an unmanned aircraft, has become Israel.In 1982, during the conflict with Syria (Bekaa Valley) appeared in the sky spy planes working in robotic mode.With their help, the Israelis managed to detect the battle formations of enemy air defenses, which allowed him to put on a missile strike.
first drones were intended solely for reconnaissance flights over the "hot" areas.Currently used as shock drones with on-board weapons and ammunition, and directly inflict bomb and missile strikes on suspected enemy positions.
most of them from the US, where mass-produced "Predator" and other types of martial aviarobotov.
Experience of military aircraft in the modern period, in particular the operation to pacify the South Ossetian conflict in 2008, showed that Russian UAVs are also needed.Conduct reconnaissance heavy jet aircraft in terms of counteraction of the enemy air defense is risky and leads to unnecessary losses.As it turned out, in this area there are some flaws.
the primacy of the idea of the modern military doctrine today is the belief that Russia needs drone strike in less than intelligence.Apply a fire attack on the enemy can be a wide variety of means, including high-precision tactical missiles and artillery.More important information about the deployment of its forces and the proper targeting.As shown by the American experience, the use of drones for direct shelling and bombing leads to many errors, the death of civilians and its own soldiers.This does not exclude a complete renunciation of the drum samples, and only reveals a promising direction that will soon develop new UAVs Russia.It would seem that the country has recently occupied a leading position in the creation of an unmanned aircraft, it is doomed to success today.Even in the first half of the 60s it was created by aircraft to fly in automatic mode: La 17R (1963), the Tu-123 (1964) and others.Leadership and remained in the 70s and 80s.However, in the nineties it became clear technological gap and attempt to resolve it in the last decade, followed by the expenditure of five billion rubles did not give the expected result.
At the moment, the most promising UAV Russia presented the following basic models:
|«Pacer»||approximate analogue "Predator »MQ-1|
|« Altair »||approximate analogue Reaper MQ-9|
|« Dozor-600 »||medium-heavy.The long duration and range|
|«Hunter»||Heavy shock UAV|
In practice, the only serial UAVs Russia now presents complex artillery reconnaissance "Tipchak"capable of performing a narrowly defined circle of combat problems associated with target designation.Signed in 2010 an agreement "Oboronprom" with the company IAI in the SKD Israeli drones can be seen as a temporary measure, not ensure the development of Russian technology, but only covering the gap in the range of the domestic defense industry.
Some promising models can be considered separately as part of publicly available information.
takeoff weight - one ton that drone not so little.Design and development company engaged in "Transas", now are flight tests of prototypes.The circuit layout, V-shaped tail, broad wings, a way to take off and landing (aircraft), and the general characteristics approximately correspond to the most common indicators currently the US "Predator."Russian UAV "pacer" can carry a variety of equipment that enables to explore at any time of the day, aerial and telecommunications support.It is assumed the possibility of producing a shock, intelligence and civilian modification.
Home model - intelligence, it is equipped with radar, and video cameras, thermal imaging and other registration equipment.On the basis of heavy airframe also can be produced and attack UAVs.Russia "Dozor-600" is needed more as a universal platform for development of technologies for the production of more powerful drones, but exclude the launch of a massive series of drone is also impossible.The project is currently under development.Date of first flight - in 2009, the same sample was at the international exhibition "MAX".Designs by "Transas".
can assume that at the moment the biggest shock UAVs Russia - "Altair", Design Bureau "Falcon".The project has another name - "Altius-M."Take-off weight of these UAVs - five tons, it will build an aircraft factory Gorbunov Kazan belongs to JSC "Tupolev".The cost of the contract with the Ministry of Defence, is about a billion rubles.We also know that these new UAVs Russia have a size commensurate with the size of the aircraft interceptor:
- length - 11 600 mm;
- wingspan - 28 500 mm;
- scope plumage - 6000 mm.
power two screw aviation diesel - 1000 l.from.In the air reconnaissance and strike UAVs Russia can be up to two days, overcoming the distance of 10 thousand kilometers.On the electronic equipment, little is known, we can only guess about its capabilities.
in development are forward-looking and other UAVs in Russia, for example, said, "The Hunter", a heavy unmanned drone that can perform various functions such as informative and reconnaissance and shock assault.Besides, according to the principle of the diversity is also observed.UAVs are both airplane and helicopter type.A large number of rotors enables efficient maneuver and hover over the object of interest, to produce high quality recording.The information can be quickly transmitted via coded channels or accumulate in the internal memory of the equipment.Management is algorithmically-UAV software, remote, or a combination, in which the return to the base is performed automatically in case of loss of control.
Apparently, the unmanned Russian spacecraft will soon not be either qualitatively or quantitatively inferior to foreign models.