Each banknote, whether coin or banknote has its own "face", or rather, the front and back side.However, the ignorant man is sometimes very difficult to understand where the front of the bill, and where its rear part.Of course, to pay for goods or services, such knowledge is not necessary, however, for some people, this question is important, sometimes even mystical significance.
Where is the obverse
Avers - so called the front side of banknotes or coins, and the name comes from the French word avers or Latin adversus, which means "facing the face."
in general practice and spetsliterature there is no consensus as to how to recognize the "face" of banknotes.Each state has the right to set their own rules in the matter.Nevertheless, there are some general guidelines to determine the obverse.So, on the face, usually depicted:
- portrait of the ruler, President (current or former) head of state;
- State emblem or the emblem of the country;sometimes it happens that the arms are placed on both sides, then the obverse is the one on which there is the main symbol of power, a higher rank or larger in size;
- legend showing the name of the State territory;
- the name of the issuing bank.
And if you do not face
Sometimes, though, it happens that the front of the banknote does not have any of the above symptoms.How to be?In cases where the image posted on this bill is neither a portrait nor a memorable place, considered to be the obverse side opposite to that on which is placed the denomination banknote, or one where the serial number.
In the most difficult cases should refer to the national catalog of the country that issued the bill.However, this rule is likely to coins, because they have a much smaller space, place where all distinctions is difficult.
Why change the "face" at the Russian ruble
banknotes are also signs of the obverse, subject to the general rules.However, at various times, these distinctive features have varied: almost always on the front side of the Russian banknotes were placed portraits of the kings, and in Soviet times they changed the portrait of the leader of the proletariat Lenin present on bank notes of any value.However, after the 1991 coup power, and with it the political course of the state changed dramatically, and soon needed a new currency, in which the portrait of Vladimir Ilyich quickly replaced the image of the Kremlin, the symbol of state power, the main fortress of the country.Since that time and until now the front of the banknotes of the Russian banknotes ceased to exhibit portraits, so as not to depend on the policy of the state.Images of cities and cultural monuments do not carry the ideological overtones, and will be relevant at any time.
Face $ 100 denominations of 1993 was decorated with the image of the Senate Tower of the Moscow Kremlin and the Russian tricolor placed on the dome of the Senate.Actually, such an image at the time were on the obverse bills of any denomination, but already in 1995, everything changed: have been released into circulation new banknotes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 thousand. Rubles.But the new "centesimal" appeared a little later - January 1, 1998.
front side of the bill, which is placed below the picture, the picture has Quadriga Roman two-wheeled chariot drawn by four horses.This bronze chariot of Apollo decorates the portico of the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre.Initially, the same image had banknote denominations of 100 000 rubles., But after the denomination in 1997 horses "thinner" exactly a thousand times and took its place of honor on the bill already in denominations of $ 100.As such, hundreds still exists today, but the October 30, 2013 published a new "Olympic" commemorative banknote of 100 rubles.It is symbolic that the issue it started exactly one hundred days before the opening of the Olympic Games.The front side of the bill is $ 100 Image snowboarder, acting at the Olympics, and on the back is visible stylized firebird, soaring over the Olympic Stadium "Fischt."The total circulation of "Olympic hundreds" of 20 million copies, and some of them were released in a gift box.The thousand
Avers thousandth bills in 1993 also had the image of the national flag on the tower of the Senate, and in the 95 th bank note was reissued again.The front side of a denomination of 1000 rubles, which went into circulation September 29, 1995, commemorates the sights of Vladivostok - the tip of the rostral column as a sailboat, "Manchuria", which was installed at the entrance to the city in 1982.The second figure on the obverse is the image of the sea port of Vladivostok, located in the famous Golden Horn, which itself has a rich history.However, in such a "thousand" lasted not too long - broke denomination, and again needed new money.1 January 2001 saw the light of the new banknote 1000 Russian rubles, its obverse decorated monument Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, erected in honor of the founder of the city of Yaroslavl residents.The second image on the front side of the banknote is the Chapel of Our Lady of Kazan, which serves as the backdrop for the Yaroslavl Kremlin.As such, the "thousandth" exists today.Despite the fact that it is reissued twice, its appearance has not changed, only added level of protection.
Signs of authenticity
Each state issues its own banknotes, is simply obliged to take care of the protection of their authenticity.Of course, no secret that the counterfeit banknotes and coins - is a criminal act, but unfortunately, this knowledge is not able to stop counterfeiters, eager to gain.Most often authenticity features are uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the bill, but in some cases, most of them given Aversa.
For example, signs of authenticity, often visible from the front, are:
- moire pattern - a special area, changing its color and has visible iridescent strip;
- shift effect - a latent image which can be seen by examining a bill at an acute angle;
- infrared labels - part of the image is covered with a special compound that has the ability to glow in the infrared;
- raised lettering - specially made for the visually impaired;
- microperforation - denomination banknotes, stuffed with small holes for the visually impaired;
- serial number, located in a particular place;
- printing images using optically variable ink.
course, there are other features - watermarks, security fibers, magnetic tags, micro text, mikrorisunok, protective metallic thread, and so on, but they are often present in the circulation or in the bulk of the bill.
What money the bank will not accept
Oddly, but in some cases the bill you will not accept, even if it is true.Banks are withdrawn from circulation (without refund) such moneys:
- decrepit, badly frayed;
- withdrawn from circulation (at the end of the voluntary exchange);
- banknotes portion whose area is less than 55% of their original size;
- bills, water damage, fire, chemical substances, if coupled with damaged areas have less than 55% of the original area;
- not accept banknotes, if the reverse or face the bill does not have one of the two denominations, numbers, or if they are very spoiled: the lack of a security thread, severe damage to or replacement of the portrait, a change in the denomination in the corners;
- the same applies to torn, cut into several pieces glued banknotes when one of integers owns less than 55% of the area.
Well, now you know where the front side of the bill, so it's time to talk about the most popular and, they say, an effective sign, associated with obverse.If you want to make money you always were carried out in large numbers, it is necessary to treat them with respect.It is believed that the money in your wallet should be placed strictly obverse to its owner, and in a specific order - from highest to lowest, so that when you open the wallet very large bills looked you straight in the face.And in any case, the money should not be based on "upside down" - can be "offended" and leave.Someone believes in omens, some do not, but you turn your money is easy to face him, so what prevents you to try - and suddenly work?