centuries-old history of the Russian state is reflected in the monuments of art, architecture, literature.The capital of the vast country - Moscow, its center - the Kremlin, which today is not only the seat of government and the president, but also a museum, reflecting all the milestones of becoming a great power.Unique in their architecture and history of the complex can tell visitors a lot of interesting.His every building bears part of our past: towers, squares, gardens, churches of the Moscow Kremlin.Cathedral of the Annunciation belongs to the most ancient buildings, shrines, stored in it, dates from the period of formation of Christianity in Russia.
architectural center of the Moscow Kremlin is the Cathedral Square.Two magnificent historical monuments are located along its perimeter.South-western part of the square is the Cathedral of the Annunciation, which is often called the gold-domed, it was consecrated in the name of the Annunciation of the Virgin.The temple is a unique representative of the ancient architecture, the pearl of the Kremlin.Over the long history of its existence it was rebuilt many times, decorate each other representative of the royal dynasty, but it has not lost the main purpose and initially pledged form.In order to determine who built the Cathedral of the Annunciation, you must turn to the history of its creation.It is known from the chronicle sources, in the late XIV Cathedral it already existed.
Wooden Church of the Annunciation of unspecified data was erected in 1290.According to legend, the order of the building was given to Prince Andrew, who was the son of Alexander Nevsky.Who built the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the original wooden version is unknown, but by the end of the XIV century it existed in this form.The need for strengthening and restoration of the church arose after it was delivered Byzantine icon "Christ in the sacristy of the white."It is associated with this event the first mentioned in chronicles of the future cathedral.To this day the original version of the construction not reached any details.Size, the author of construction, interior and exterior of the church is a mystery that can not be unraveled.Since the beginning of the XIV century begins the construction of a stone church, which later become known as the Cathedral of the Annunciation.History of the further transformation of the church is closely connected with the princes, and then royal families ruling in Russia.
His incarnation in the stone church was obliged to Basil I (son of Dmitry Donskoy), it was he who ordered to lay the chapel for the princely family.The main condition for the construction was its proximity to the accommodation chambers, so the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin townspeople called the temple "on the porch."In 1405 he painted the interior decoration was made famous Russian painters (Greek F., A. Rublev).The architectural features of the structure created, its design reflects the influence of the Byzantine style, which was heavily due to the formation of Christianity in that time.Over 70 years, the temple served intact, and in 1483 was destroyed by order of Ivan III.
Construction of the cathedral
full upgrade of the Kremlin buildings begins with 1480.Prince of Moscow, Ivan III invited Italian artists to work, but with the condition of the restructuring of the whole complex of buildings in the old Russian style.Who built the Cathedral of the Annunciation?From the annals of the time fairly well-known fact, saying that the temple was built by Russian architects.For these works were involved in the Pskov architects who, with the assistance of the Moscow masters have started the construction of the temple in 1984.He served as the foundation for an old basement, r. E. The cathedral was built of the same shape as the old one.Before
Russian masters was a difficult task it was to fit harmoniously into the temple complex of buildings of the Kremlin.From chronicles the end of the XIV century, you can even find out the names of those who built the Cathedral of the Annunciation in Moscow, it is architects from Pskov Myshkin and Krivtsov.It should be noted the talent of these people, thanks to their efforts, the Kremlin has acquired another unique structure and absorb the history of the state for the century of his service.
in 1489 the construction of the cathedral was finished, he lit the Metropolitan Gerontius.Typical features of the architectural traditions of Moscow and Pskov masters can be traced in this building.As a pre-existing temple, he had a square shape and was married three chapters.Located in the central part of the pillar, which differed for each wall of the low arch.Cross-domed building was surrounded by covered galleries.System transitions linked to temple complex of residential buildings of the Kremlin.Apse (closed small altar recess) was located on the east side.Main (religious) does not preclude the appointment of practical use, which bore the Annunciation Cathedral of the Kremlin.Description of the altar makes it possible to assume that could be stored in the basement of the State Treasury.
Grand Dukes and then all Russian tsars used the Annunciation Cathedral of the Kremlin as the adjoining church.It accomplishes all family sacraments (baptism, wedding).The rector of the Cathedral became the spiritual father of the ruler of Russia, he confessed he helped write and assured will in long conversations could give advice to the king.The stored value of the Annunciation Church of the prince (the royal) family (relics, icons, and relics of saints).The first Moscow princes were stored in it treasury.Each representative of the next dynasty, ascended the throne, trying to improve the decoration of the cathedral, to make his appearance something of their own, leave a reminder on to descendants.
Who built the Cathedral of the Annunciation, which we see today?The question is not simple, the building was updated frequently in connection with the fire in Moscow as a result of wars and revolutions.The most significant change in appearance of the temple took place during the XVI century.Vasily III during his reign commanded to paint the temple of the "rich".This work attracted the best painters in Russia (Theodosius, Fedor Edikeev).The main motives of frescos have been retained, but the decoration of the cathedral there and finishing precious stones.Number domes increases to 9 (the symbol of the Holy Virgin in old Christianity), each of which is covered with gold, so gold-domed cathedral becomes.The southern entrance of his order is only for the royal visit (prince) family, where they were handing out alms and the rest after the service.
Ivan the Terrible
In 1547 Moscow Kremlin and construction significantly affected by the big fire.Cathedral of the Annunciation was no exception, so Ivan the Terrible ordered him to fully recover (or building).In 1564, the temple was built, painted, decorated richer than when his father (Vasily III), and illuminated.The porch decorated with carved white stone portals, which are designed by Italian masters.Unique for that time copper steel doors decorated with gold.It was partially reconstructed iconostasis and painted roof, the walls and columns of the Temple.By order of Ivan the Terrible to the Annunciation Cathedral is attached porch (Grozny) by giving it it was a place where the king saw a portent of his death.
modern history of Russia took the throne of the Romanov dynasty, which also preserved and decorated Cathedral of the Annunciation.His subsequent history is an example of respect for the ancient Russian shrines.The most significant damage was the temple in 1917, a shell hit the porch was destroyed Grozny, which has not been restored.The Bolsheviks moved the capital to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin leadership.The unique historical, religious and architectural sites have become inaccessible to ordinary people.The new government after a long period opened the entrance to the historic city center, creating a museum of the Moscow Kremlin.Annunciation Cathedral functioned as such until 1993.Today it is one of the most ancient shrines of Orthodoxy operating on the territory of our state.
Cathedral of the Annunciation was built over several centuries.It actually consists of several buildings of different periods, which are quite in harmony and form familiar to modern man for appearance of the temple.In the XVI century to the cathedral are attached four chapels, each of which is crowned by the head, with three of the nine chapters are decorative.The interior space is small in size, t. To. The cathedral was intended only for the grand (the royal) family.The architectural style of construction can be described as an Old Russian, Byzantine traditions.The dome design by lighting creates the effect of vertical movement, in the manner of decoration can be traced Pskov school of architecture (square pillars, arches dammed).Moscow masters have in the face of the cathedral walls and patterned belt shape portals.Annunciation Cathedral is unique in its architecture and history of the building.
unique composition and age of the collection, is located in several tiers (rows).Icons XIV, XV, XVI centuries, the unique relics of ancient Christianity presented in the temple.Among them are works by Andrei Rublev and Theophanes the Greek, who survived.Icons depicting the events of Christ's life, created in the XVI century, their salaries are made by special order in 1896.Surprisingly, the iconostasis of the Annunciation Cathedral is because it left room for the image of the king, who rules in a certain time period.After the death of the monarch with his icon image is transferred to the Archangel Cathedral and placed in the tomb.
most ancient samples of authentic frescoes lost in fires and reconstructions of the cathedral.Modern painting is their copies, it is made by artists of the XVI century, which tried to convey colors, shapes and meaning of subjects.Surprising is the fact that along with the traditional biblical motifs on the walls, arches, columns depict the faces of Russian princes and ancient philosophers, it gives the uniqueness of this monument is the Kremlin's Cathedral of the Annunciation.Moscow, Russia has more ancient samples mural temples.This museum houses works of religious art, which have no analogues.The image of the Annunciation belongs to the most ancient and rare type of iconography.